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THE SHRUBS 

AND 

WOODY VINES 

OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 




BULLETIN 46 



NORTH CAROLINA 

DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT 

R. Bruce Etheridge, Director 

RALEIGH, 1945 



THE SHRUBS 

AND 

WOODY VINES 

OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 



A REPRINT FROM 

GEOLOGICAL AND NATURAL HISTORY SURVEY 

Part III — BOTANY 
TREES, SHRUBS AND WOODY VINES 

By Rev. M. A. Curtis, D.D. 
1860 



LLETIN 46 



DEPARTMENT OF 

CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT 

DIVISION OF 

FORESTRY AND PARKS 

W. K. Beichler, State Forester 



price ten cents 



NORTH CAROLINA 
BOARD OF CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT* 

Governor R. Gregg Cherry, Chairman 

FOR A TWO YEAR TERM 

Josh L. Horne, Rocky Mount 

W. J. Damtoft Canton 

W. Roy Hampton Plymouth 

A. H. Guion Charlotte 

Charles S. Allen Durham 

FOR A FOUR YEAR TERM 

K. Clyde Council Wananish 

J. Wilbur Bunn Raleigh 

Dr. J. D. Rudisill** -_1_- — — - - Lenoir 

A. K. Winget ..„ Albemarle 

Percy B. Ferebee Andrews 



FOR A SIX YEAR TEI 

Oscar P. Breece .1 Fayetteville 

D. M. Stafford Greensboro 

R. Floyd Crouse Sparta 

Miles J. Smith Salisbury 

J. R . Wollett Littleton 

R. Bruce Etheridge, Director 



*Appointed by Governor Cherry, June 2nd, 1945. 
**Died July 28, 1945. 
R. W. Proctor, Marion, appointed August 1, 1945, to succeed him. 



. 



FOREWORD 

Dr. Joseph Austin Holmes, in his paper "Historical Notes 
Concerning the North Carolina Geological Surveys, published in 
The Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, 1889, states 
that there were three North Carolina State surveys that have 
been called geological surveys: (1) the "Geological and Min- 
eralogical Survey," conducted by Professors Denison Olmsted 
and Elisha Mitchell (1824-'28), termed the Olmsted-Mitchell 
survey; (2) the "Geological, Mineralogical, Botanical and Agri- 
cultural Survey, "prosecuted under Professor Ebenezer Emmons 
(1852-'61 or '64), called the Emmons Survey; and (3) the 
"Geological, Mineralogical, Botanical and Agricultural Survey, 
"prosecuted under Professor W. C. Kerr (1866-'85), termed the 
Kerr survey. The last mentioned of these may be considered 
in part a continuation of the second." The fourth "geological 
Survey" began in 1891 and was in charge of Dr. Holmes himself, 
as State Geologist. It continued until 1905 when it was re- 
organized by the General Assembly into the fifth survey, legally 
termed the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey. Dr. 
Joseph Hyde Pratt, an expert in what might be called the Holmes 
Survey, was appointed State Geologist. He retained direction of 
that survey until 1924 when its offices were removed from Chapel 
Hill to the State Capitol. Up until this time all of the men in 
charge of these surveys were professors at the University and 
their offices were in a university building. 

The General Assembly of 1925, in creating the Department of 
Conservation and Development, gave as its first object "To take 
over the powers and duties exercised by the State Geological 
and Economic Survey, the State Geological Board and the State 
Geologist." Thus, reports of these previous surveys became the 
inheritance of the present Department of Conservation and 
Development and it becomes the privilege of this Department to 
make available to the inquiring public such useful information 
collected by these surveys as may be of interest and value to the 
people of the State. 

The second, or Emmons Survey, called for "a survey of every 
county to ascertain, among other things, the character and value 
of its botanical productions; the character and value of its 
timber; and all other facts connected with the subjects of geology 
and mineralogy, botany, and agriculture which may tend to a 
full development of the resources of the State." An annual 
appropriation of $5,000 was made for its support. The man 



employed by Dr. Emmons to carry out the "botanical" survey 
was one who was already familiar with the* "botanical produc- 
tion" of every part of North Carolina, the Rev. M. A. Curtis, 
rector of the Episcopal Church at Hillsboro, N. C. His pecuniary 
compensation was $500 per annum for the years 1859 to 1865. 

Moses Ashley Curtis was born May 11, 1808, at Stockbridge, 
Mass., the son of the Rev. Jared Curtis. His mother was Thank- 
ful Ashley, daughter of Gen. Moses Ashley. A graduate of 
Williams College (1827) he came to Wilmington in 1830 as tutor 
in the family of Governor Dudley. In December 1834 he married 
Mary DeRosset of Wilmington and a year later was ordained a 
minister in the Episcopal Church. After three years' missionary 
work out from Lincolnton, N. C. and two years teaching in 
Raleigh, he spent a year in our mountains on account of his 
health. Then after a short period of mission work at Wash- 
ington, N. C. he removed early in 1841 to Hillsboro where he 
lived until his death in 1872, except for the years 1847-56 when 
he took the pastorate at Society Hill, S. C. Practically his only 
publication, outside of articles in the scientific press, were "The 
Woody Plants of North Carolina," (1860) of which this "Shrubs 
and Vines of North Carolina" was the latter part; the first part 
dealt with the "Trees of North Carolina." His studies, however, 
extended to all plant life and greatly extended our knowledge of 
the fungi, lichens, liverworts, etc. Donald C. Peattie, in sum- 
marizing his biological sketch of Dr. Curtis, in the Dictionary 
of American Biography, says : "Like the evolution controversy 
the great military conflict (the War between the States) seems 
scarcely to have touched his tranquil nature, given as it was to 
religion and science which for him transcended all animosities," 
and Thomas F. Wood, in his paper on Dr. Curtis, read before the 
Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society May 22, 1885, quoted this very 
pertinent verse : "For him the earth was crammed with Heaven, 
and every common bush afire with God." 

In recommending the publication of this old report, it is rea- 
lized that changes have taken place in the classification and 
scientific nomenclature* of our native plants but the common 
names have changed very little. Since no recent book on North 
Carolina shrubs can now be had, it seems wise to make available 
this painstaking and popularly written report until something 
else is available. "Common Forest Trees of North Carolina," 
published by this Department, and the much more adequate 
books, "Trees of the Southeastern States," by Coker and Totten, 
and "Trees of the South," by Charlotte Hilton Green, already 
supply information on the trees of the state. There has for some 
time been under preparation a book on the shrubs of the state 



ii 



by members of the State University staff. It is felt that this 
present edition of this report will fill in the period until such a 
new and up-to-date book becomes available. 

The reader is herewith assured that no changes have been 
made in the text of this list; it is just as Dr. Curtis wrote it and 
the State published it eighty-five years ago; a report that in- 
spired the writer of the above lines to study the woody plants 
of his adopted State. 

John Simcox Holmes, 

Associate Forester. 



♦Nomenclature throughout follows "Chapman's Flora of the Southeastern 
States," first edition. 



in 



INDEX 



Page 



Page 



Alder 

Alder, Dwarf 

Alder, White 

(Andromeda) 

Arbor Vitae 

Arrow Wood 

(Ascyrum) 

(Astragene) 

Azalea 

Bamboo 

Barberry 

Bearberry 

Bear Grass 

Bear Oak 

Bittersweet 

Blackberry 

Bladder Nut 

Blueberry 

Box 

(Buckleya) 

Buckthorn, Carolina 

Buffalo Tree 

Bullace 

Burning Bush 

Bursting Heart 

Bush Honeysuckle 

Button Bush 

Calico Bush 

Candle-berry 

Cane 

(Cassandra) 

China Root 

Chinquapin 

Choke Berry 

(Cornus) 

(Cocculus) 

Coral Berry 

Cornel 

Cranberry 

Creeper, Virginia 

Cross Vine 

Currant 

Dahoon Holly 

(Darbya) 

(Decumaria) 

Deer Berry 

Devil's Shoe Strings 

Dew Berry 

Dogwood, Swamp 

Dutchman's Pipe 

Eglantine 

Elder 

Elder, Marsh 

Pern, Sweet 

Fetter Bush 

Fever Bush 

Fish Wood 

Flowering Moss 



27 

25 

20 

17 

28 

12 

28 

38 

18 

34 

6 

8 

16 

1 

37 

10 

27 

8 

26 

25 

14 

16 

32 

22 

22 

22 

26 

19 

26 

28 

18 

34 

1 

4 

3 

35 

9 

4 

9 

33 

36 

7 

2 

25 

37 

9 

9 

10 

3 

38 

11 

11 

28 

25 

16 

13 

22 

28 



(Forsteronia) 

French Mulberry 

Fringe Tree 

Gallberry 

Goose Berry 

Grapes 

Green Briar 

Groundsel 

Hardback 

Hazel Nut 

Hazel, Witch 

Haw, Black 

Haw, Scarlet 

Hawthorn 

Heath, False 

Hemlock 

Hobble Bush 

Honeysuckle 

Hop Tree 

Huckleberry 

Huckleberry, He 

(Hudsonia) 

Hydrangea _, 

Hypericum 

Ilex 

Indigo Bush 

Inkberry 

(Itea) 

Ivy 

Jessamine 

Laurel 

Laurel, Dog 

Laurel, Sheep 

Leather Wood 

(Leucothoe) 

Locust, Rose 

Loosestrife 

Maple 

Meadow Sweet 

Mistletoe 

Moonseed 

Moonseed 

Mock Orange 

Mountain Tea 

Mulberry, Bermuda 

Muscadine 

Myrtle, Sand 

Myrtle, Wax 

New Jersey Tea 

Nine Bark 

Oak 

Oil Nut 

Old Man's Beard _ 

Palmetto, Dwarf 

Papaw 

Pellitory 

Pepper Bush 

Pepper, Mountain _ 



37 

9 
16 

3 

7 
30 
34 
27 
23 
26 
25 
11 

5 

5 
20 
17 
12 
18 
26 

7 
24 
29 
21 
28 

2 
24 

3 
21 
19 
37 
18 
17 
20 
13 
17 

1 
28 

1 
23 
10 
10 
36 
22 
15 

9 
32 
20 
26 
24 
23 

1 
16 
16 

4 
15 
23 
17 
21 



Page 

Pepper, Sweet 20 

Poison Oak 15 

Poison Vine 36 

(Polygonella) 29 

Pond Bush 13 

Prickly Ash 13 23 

Privet 13 

Queen of the Meadow 23 

Raspberry 10 

Rattan 35 

Red Haws 5 

Red Root 24 

Reed 28 

Rhododendron 18 

Rock Rose ' 28 

Rose 11 

Rose Locust 1 

(Sageretia) 35 

Sarsaparilla 34 

Sarsaparilla, Big 37 

Scuppernong 32 

Sheep Berry 12 

Spanish Bayonet 15 

Sparkleberry 9 

Spice Bush 13 

Stagger Bush 17 

(Stillingia) 22 

Strawberry Bush 22 

(Stuartia) 23 

(Styrax) 22 



Page 

Sumach 14 

Supple Jac& 35 

Sweet Brier 11 

Sweet Fern 25 

Sweet Leaf 4 

Sweet Shrub 27 

Syringa 21 

Tangle Legs _l 12 

Thorn Tree 5 

Toothache Tree 23 

Trailing Arbutus 29 

Trefoil, Shrubby 26 

Trumpet Flower 3 6 

Virginia Creeper 33 

Virgin's Bower 36 38 

Wax Work 37 

Wayfarer's Tree 12 

Wicky i 20 

Wild Appslice 13 

Wild Ginger 37 

Willow, Gray 4 

Willow, Bush 5 

Willow, Silky-leaved _ 5 

Winterberry 3 

Wintergreen 15 

Wistaria 36 

Witch Hazel 25 

Woodbine 33 

Yellow Root 24 

Yellow Wood 4 

Yopon 2 



A TABULAR 

EW OF THE SPECIES 

Arranged according to the character of their fruit. 



SHRUBS 

Fleshy Fruit — 
Stone Fruit: 

Plums, Fringe Tree, Oil Nut. 

Large Fleshy: 

Papaws, Spanish Bayonet, Bear Grass,, Roses. 
Red: 

Red Haws, Barberry, Bermuda Mulberry, Huckleberry, 
Creeping Huckleberry, Bearberry, Cranberry, Elder, 
Coral Berry, Chokeberry, Yopon, Dahoon Holly, Sumach, 
Poison Oak, Flowering Raspberry, Mountain Tea, Spice 

. Bush, Pond Bush, Leather Wood, (Ilex)*. 

Berries — 

Black or Blue : 

Black Haws, Gallberries, Dogwoods, Privet, Carolina Buck- 
thorn, Prickly Ash, Elder, Dwarf Palmetto, Gooseberries, 
Currants, Huckleberries, Sparkleberry, Blackberries, 
Dewberry, Raspberry. 
Whitish: 

Mistletoe, Deerberry, Dogwoods. 

Dry Fruit — 

Nuts : 

Hazel, Buckeye. 

Nutlets: 

Witch Hazel, Button Bush, Dwarf Alder, Wax Myrtle, Sweet 
Fern. 

Tassels and Cones: 

Willows, Alder, Arbor Vitae. 

Bladdery: 

Bladder Nut, Sweet Shrub. 
Flat and Winged: 

Maples, Hop Tree. 
Naked Seed: 

Marsh Elder, Groundsel. 
Grass-like: 

Reed or Cane. 



Dry Capsules — 

Laurel, Ivy, Wicky, Honeysuckles, Dog,; Laurel, Fetter Bush, 
Pepper Bush, Stagger Bush (Andromeda), (Cassandra), 
(Leucothoe), Sweet Pepper Bush, (Itea), Sand Myrtle, 
He Huckleberry, False Heath, Syringa, Hydrangea, Hard- 
hack, Queen of the Meadow, Bush Honeysuckle, Straw- 
berry Bush, Burning Bush, Trailing Arbutus, (Hud- 
sonia), Swamp Loosestrife, Toothache Tree, Indigo Bush, 
Mock Orange, (Stuartia), (Stillingia), (Darbya), (Buck- 
leya), Red Root, Yellow Root, Rock Rose (Ascyrum), 
Flowering Moss. 



*N.B. — Plants without a popular name are enclosed in parentheses and will 
be found also in the Index. 

VINES 

Berries — 

Reddish: 

Grapes, Woodbine, Bamboo, Poison Vine, (Cocculus). 

Blackish: 

Grapes, China Root, Bamboo, Sarsaparilla, Virginia Creeper, 
Rattan, Moonseed, (Sageretia), (Berchemia). 

Pods — 

Trumpet Flower, Cross Vine, Jessamine, Virgin's Bower, 
(Forsteronia). 

Capsules — 

Bittersweet, Wild Ginger, (Decumaria). 

Naked and Feathered Seeds — 

Virgin's Bower, (Atragene). 



THE SHRUBS OF NORTH CAROLINA 



Chinquapin Oak. (Quercus prinoides, Willd.) — Sometimes 
called Dwarf Chestnut Oak. Its foliage is somewhat like that of 
the Rock Chestnut Oak, and also has some likeness to that of the 
Chinquapin, which gives it its common name. It is a mere shrub, 

2 to 4 feet high, of no value, and is here mentioned only to give a 
complete view of the genus. It is found very sparingly in the 
Lower District, but is not uncommon upon poor soils in the upper 
parts of the State. 

Bear Oak. (Q. ilicifolia, Wang.) — A. shrub, ordinarily about 

3 to 5 feet high, extending from New Yorki southward through 
the mountains of Virginia (where it is common) and North 
Carolina (very rare), to Georgia. The leaves are 2 to 3 inches 
long, cut about half way to the middle nerve into two divisions on 
each side, and with a white down on the underside. Worthless 
in itself, but a good indicator of barren soil. 

Chinquapin. (Castanea pumila, Michx.) — This extends from 
the Delaware throughout the South. In this State it is known 
from the seaboard to Cherokee, and in great varieties of soil. It 
is usually a shrub from 6 to 12 feet high, but in cool fertile 
situations it is sometimes 30 or 40, and 12 or 18 inches in diame- 
ter. The wood is finer grained than the Chestnut and equally 
durable ; but the stock is too small for extensive use. 

There is a distinct variety of this (var: nana) in our poor 
forests with slender shoots and extensive runners, bearing fruit 
at the height of a foot. 

Rose Locust. (Robinia hispida, Linn.) — A well-known orna- 
mental shrub of our gardens, (sometimes known by the singular 
misnomer of Rose of Sharon,) with large, deep rose-colored blos- 
soms, bristly branches, flower-stems, and pods. It is indigenous 
to the rocky summits of mountains and hills in the Upper and 
Middle Districts; and a dwarf variety, in the Pine barrens of 
the Lower. 

Mountain Maple. (Acer spicatum, Lam.) — This has nearly 
the same range in the country with the Striped Maple. In this 
State it is found only in the Mountains, and is also a shrub 6 to 
10 feet high. From its insignificance it does not seem to have 
attracted sufficient attention to acquire a popular name ; but is 
known farther north by the above, and also as Low Maple. Euro- 
peans, who have paid far more attention than ourselves to the 
uses and capacities of our forest productions, have ascertained 
that this and the Striped Maple acquire double their natural size 



2 The Shrubs of North Carolina 

when engrafted on other species of Maple.' Its leaves and fruit 
have the common characters of a Maple, the latter being rather 
small. 

Dahoon Holly. (Ilex Dahoon, Walt.) — A shrub or small 
tree from 6 to 25 feet high, growing on the borders of the Pine- 
barren ponds and swamps of our Low Country, from Virginia to 
Florida. The leaves are 1 to 2 inches long, 14 to 1/2 inch wide, 
entire, or with a few sharp teeth near the upper end, evergreen. 
The berries are red, as in the Holly and Yopon, and the plant is 
well worthy of cultivation. 

Yopon. (I. Cassine, Linn.) — An elegant shrub, 10 to 15 feet 
high, but sometimes rising into a small tree of 20 to 25 feet. Its 
native place is near salt water, and it is found from Virginia 
southward, but never far in the interior. Its dark evergreen 
leaves and bright red berries make it very ornamental in yards 
and shrubberies. The leaves are small, 1/2 "to 1 inch long, very 
smooth, and evenly scalloped on the edges with small rounded 
teeth. In some sections of the Lower District, especially in the 
region of the Dismal Swamp, these are annually dried and used 
for tea, which is, however, oppressively sudorific, — at least to one 
not accustomed to it. The Mate, or Paraguay Tea, of South 
America, is of the same genus as this, (the I. Paraguay ensis,) 
but a very different species. Our Yopon is the article from which 
the famous Black Drink of the Southern Indians was made. "At 
a certain time of the year they come down in droves from a dis- 
tance of some hundred miles to the coast for the leaves of this 
tree. They make a fire on the ground, and putting a great kettle 
of water on it, they throw in a large quantity of these leaves, 
and setting themselves around the fire, from a bowl that holds 
about a pint they begin drinking large draughts, which in a short 
time occasions them to vomit freely and easily. Thus they con- 
tinue drinking and vomiting for the space of two or three days, 
until they have sufficiently cleansed themselves; and then every 
one taking a bundle of the tree, they all retire to their habi- 
tations." 

(I. decidua, Walt.) — This and the next three have deciduous 
leaves, and have not been honored in this State, as far as I know, 
with popular names. This is common along shaded ravines and 
branches throughout the Middle District, and is from 6 to 15 
feet high. The leaves are 1 to 2 inches long, with rounded teeth 
on the edges, narrow and tapering down in to a short stem, some- 
what hairy on the veins of the underside, otherwise smooth. 
Berries red, in clusters, each containing 4 to 6 bony seeds, that 
are ribbed on the back. 

(I. ambigua, Chapm.) — A shrub or small tree confined to our 
mountain region in this State, though found elsewhere to the 



The Shrubs of North Carolina 3 

North and South, and from 8 to 20 feet high. The leaves are 3 to 
5 and sometimes 6 inches long, about half as broad, with fine 
sharp teeth on the edges, smooth on both sides, and tapering at 
the upper end. The berries are red, not in clusters, and with 
seeds as in I. decidua. 

(I. verticillata, Gray.) — This occurs in all the Districts, and in 
various soils, 2 to 10 feet high, and has clusters of bright scarlet 
berries which hang on through the Winter. In some States it is 
called Winterberry. The leaves are about 2 inches long, of vary- 
ing width, but generally broader toward the upper end, coarsely 
toothed, paler and somewhat downy on the underside. The seeds 
are smooth and even. A decoction of the bark is a popular appli- 
cation to old sores. 

Gallberry. (I. glabra, Gray.) — This and the next species are 
evergreen shrubs, indiscriminately called by the above name, 
sometimes Galls, more rarely Inkberries, names apparently de- 
rived from their black bitter berries. This is from 3 to 5 feet 
high, very common in the Branch swamps of the Lower District, 
and giving its name of Galls or Gallbays to the low places chiefly 
occupied by it. The leaves are very smooth and green, sparingly 
toothed, 1 to IV2 inch long, and about half that width. 

Tall Gallberry. (I. coriacea, Chapm.) — This grows in 
similar situations with the preceding, having the same habit and 
appearance, but full twice as large, the leaves also much larger, 
and either entire or with scattered sharp teeth. 

Swamp Dogwood. (Cornus sericea, Linn.) — This and the re- 
maining species of the genus are only shrubs, but are placed here 
for the purpose of having all the species of a genus together, as 
I have done in other genera. With the exception of the last 
species, they all have their leaves opposite, as in the Dogwood. 
This is the only one of them which has received notice enough in 
this State, so far as I have discovered, to get a name. It is 
found in low woods in the Middle and Upper Districts, has pur- 
plish branches, is from 6 to 10 feet high, and having rather 
broad, pointed leaves, which are smooth above and with a silky 
down beneath. The flowers are white, in flat-topped clusters, 
succeeded by pale-blue berries. 

(C. stricta, Linn.) — This is 6 to 15 feet high, with brownish or 
reddish branches, found only in the wet lands of the Lower 
District . The leaves are about 3 inches long and 1 inch wide, 
tapering to a point at the upper end, the edges slightly uneven, 
smooth on both sides, paler and with prominent veins on the 
underside. The flowers and pale-blue berries are much as in 
C. sericea. 



4 The Shrubs of North Carolina 

(C. paniculata, L'Her.) — A branching shrub, 4 to 8 feet high, 
with gray branches, found in this State only in our mountain 
counties. The leaves are only 2 to 3 inches long, with a tapering 
point, smooth, whitish on the underside. The white flowers are 
in longer and looser clusters than in the two preceding, and the 
berries white. 

(C. alternifolia, L'Her.) — I have met with this only on the 
higher mountains. It is the only one of this genus of Cornels — 
this being the common name of the shrubby Dogwoods — which 
has the leaves alternating on the branches, instead of being oppo- 
site to each other in pairs. It is 10 to 15 and 20 feet high, the 
branches also alternate, greenish, streaked with white. The 
leaves are about 3 inches long, hoary and slightly hairy beneath, 
and pointed at the end. The flowers are whitish, in a loose flat 
topped cluster ; the berries dark blue or bluish black. 

Dwarf Palmetto. (Sabal Adansonii, Guerns.) — This is but 
3 or 4 feet high, never forming a trunk, and found only in the 
Lower District. The leaves are employed in the manufacture of 
palm-leaf hats. 

Yellow Wood. (Symplocos tinctoria, L'Her.) — Also called 
Siveet Leaf and High Bush Laurel. It does not extend much, if 
anjr, north of James River. In this State it occurs from the 
coast to the mountains, but is most multiplied in the Lower 
District. In poor soils it is only a shrub 2 to 6 feet high ; but in 
those which are fertile, as on the borders of swamps, it becomes 
a small tree, 20 to 25 feet high and 6 to 8 inches in diameter. If 
the trunk be wounded in Spring, it exudes a milky, offensive 
juice. The leaves, which are 3 to 5 inches long, are sweet to the 
taste but rather dry, and greedily eaten by cattle and deer in 
Winter. They afford, by decoction, a beautiful yellow color, 
which is fixed by a little alum, wherewith cotton, woolen and 
silk, are dyed. It is not much used, however. The fruit is a 
small one-seeded berry. The wood is soft and valueless. 

Choke Berry. (Pyrus arbutifolia, Linn.)^ — A mere shrub 2 
to 3 feet high, introduced here only to complete an account of 
the genus. The fruit is berrylike, as in the Mountain Ash, but 
has the same structure as an apple, with seeds of the same ap- 
pearance and taste. It grows in small clusters, and is rather dry 
and astringent. We have two varieties of this : — one, with a red 
or purple fruit, found on the borders of branches and bays in the 
Middle and Lower Districts; — the other, in the mountains, and 
having a purplish-black fruit. 

Gray Willow. (Salix tristis, Ait.) — A shrub 1 to 2 feet high, 
very much branched, of a dull gray aspect on account of the 
young branches and leaves being covered with an ash-colored 



The Shrubs of North Carolina 5 

down or wool. The leaves are from 1 to 1*4 inch long with a 
hardly perceptible stem, narrow, sharp at each end, but tapering 
from the base towards the upper end, and with the veins prom- 
inent on the underside. I have met with this insignificant plant 
only in the mountain counties. 

Bush Willow. (S. humilis, Marsh.) — Larger than the pre- 
ceding, 2 to 4 feet high, but of similar general aspect, the leaves 
two or three times longer and broader, and found both in the 
Middle and Upper Districts, rarely in the Lower. During Sum- 
mer the branches of this and Gray Willow have cone-like ex- 
crescences on their ends. 

Silky-Leaved Willow. (S. sericea, Marsh.) — This is 3 to 6 
feet high, with leaves 2 to 3 inches long, fyorne on conspicuous 
stems, pale, and with silky hairs on the underside. 

RED HAWS. — Thorny shrubs, sometimes tree-shaped, with 
white flowers, mostly in flat topped clusters, and colored 
(generally red) fruit containing 1 to 5 bony seeds. 

1. Scarlet Haw. (Crataegus coccinea, Linn.) — Grows in the 
Middle and Upper Districts, 6 to 12 feet high, with stout thorns 
1 and 2 inches long. The leaves are smooth and thin, about 2 
inches long and broad, cut into several small segments on each 
side. The fruit is bright red, V2 i ncn or more long, and eatable. 

2. Washington Thorn. (C. cordata, Ait.) — I have seen this 
only in the Middle District. It is a very beautiful shrub when in 
blossom, as may be seen on the Cape Fear near Averasboro in 
May. It is from 10 to 20 feet high, the thorns about 2 inches 
long, and rather slender. The leaves are 2 to 3 inches long, cut 
into 3 divisions somewhat like those of the Red Maple. The fruit 
is bright crimson, about Vi inch long. 

3. Parsley-Leaved Haw. (C. apiifolia, Michx.) — This, so 
closely resembling the Hawthorn of England, is found in the 
Lower and Middle Districts. The leaves are about 1 inch long, 
and much cut up into small divisions, from which this handsome 
shrub or small tree derives its name, and by which it is easily 
distinguished from all the other species. The fruit is red and 
about 14 i ncn long. 

4. Cockspur Thorn. (C. Crus-galli, Linn.) — The most 
abundant of our Thorns or Haivs, and found in all the Districts. 
It is 10 to 20 feet high and armed with sharp thorns 2 inches or 
more long. The leaves are about 2 inches long, rather thick and 
stiff, shining green above, somewhat tapering from the upper 
part downward, and toothed above the middle. The fruit is red, 
about 1/3 inch long. This is our best species for hedging. But it 



6 The Shrubs of North Carolina 

should be remembered that none answers well if left at random 
to an upward growth, and is not well laid and so regularly trim- 
med or cut in as to take a lateral growth and to branch freely- 
near the ground. 

5. Black Thorn. (C. tomentosa, Linn.)— A shrub or small 
tree in the Middle and Upper Districts, with large clusters of 
flowers, which are % inch or more broad, and a round or pear- 
shaped, edible fruit, which is orange-red and about % inch long. 
The leaves are 3 to 5 inches long, of an oval or oblong form, finely 
toothed and sometimes cut at the summit, somewhat hairy on 
the underside, and more or less furrowed along the veins above. 

There is a form of this (var : punctata, Gray) very common on 
the tops of our mountains, with the leaves smaller, more nar- 
rowed towards the base, and the furrows on the upper surface 
deeper, and the veins more prominent beneath. The fruit is 
round, yellowish or dull red, sprinkled with whitish dots. 

6. Narrow-Leaved Thorn. (C. spathulata, Michx.) — Not un- 
common in the Lower and Middle Districts, 10 to 15 feet high, 
with quite small flowers and fruit, but rather ornamental. The 
leaves are smooth and shining, 1/2 to IV2 inch long, 14 to 1/2 inch 
wide, toothed at the upper end and tapering from near the top 
down to the stem. The fruit is red and in numerous clusters, 

7. Summer Haw. (C. flava, Ait.) — A small tree 15 to 20 feet 
high, in sandy woods, with fruit 1/2 to % inch thick, pear-shaped, 
and greenish-yellow. The leaves are 2 to 3 inches long, wedge- 
shaped, the lower part tapering into a short stem with small dark 
glands on the edges. The flowers but from 2 to 5 in a cluster. 

8. Hairy Thorn. (C. glandulosa, Michx.) — A small tree with 
coarse bark and spreading branches, and the leaves, branchlets 
and flower stems covered with soft hairs, especially when young. 
The leaves are about 1 inch long, rather thickish, wedge-shaped, 
the edges generally dotted with dark glands. The fruit is small, 
round, and red. The flowers are 3 to 6 in a cluster. 

9. Dwarf Thorn. (C. parvifolia, Ait.) — A small shrub 2 to 
5 feet high, very common in sandy woods throughout the Lower 
and Middle Districts, and with a whitish down on most of its 
parts. The leaves are % to l 1 /? inch long, broad, wedge-shaped, 
toothed, with hardly any stem. Flowers solitary, or 2 or 3 to- 
gether. Fruit round or pear-shaped, greenish-yellow, rather 
large and dry. 

Barberry. (Berberi-s Canadensis, Pursh.) — Found in Lincoln, 
thence westward, especially in Buncombe, Haywood and Macon 
Counties. It is not known to exist north of Virginia, and is the 
only native Barberry in the United States. The European species 



The Shrubs of North Carolina 7 

(B. vulgaris) is thoroughly naturalized in New England. Ours 
is a pretty shrub, 2 to 4 feet high and somewhat prickly. The 
fruit is an oblong, red and acid berry, which makes an agreeable 
conserve, and a cooling drink in fevers. The leaves are also 
slightly acid. It is probable that this, like the European species, 
which it closely resembles, would furnish a yellow color by boil- 
ing the roots in lye ; and that the inner bark of the stems would 
dye linen of a fine yellow with the assistance of alum. 

GOOSEBERRIES AND CURRANTS.— These belong to one 
genus, but are distinguished — the former, by the small sharp 
thorns at the base of the leaves, sometimes the fruit being 
prickly, and generally (always in the North Carolina species) 
by the flower stems having from 1 to 3 flowers ; the latter, by the 
absence of thorns, smaller fruit (never prickly), and the flowers 
numerous in long clusters. They are found only in the moun- 
tains. 

1. Prickly Gooseberry. (Ribes Cynosbati, Linn.) — Dis- 
tinguished from the others by its prickly fruit, which is brownish 
when ripe, and eatable. 

2. Smooth Gooseberry. (R. rotundifolium, Michx.) — This 
is 3 to 4 feet high, the leaves 1 to 2 inches broad, about half the 
size of the preceding, the fruit small, purple when ripe, and of 
fine flavor. 

3. Slender Gooseberry. (R. gracile, Michx.) — Very similar 
to No. 2, but every way more slender and delicate, and quite rare. 

4. Fetid Currant. (R. prostratum, L'Her.) — Occurring 
chiefly upon rocks on our highest mountains and generally 
spreading on the ground. The berry is covered with bristles and 
is not pleasant flavored. The whole plant exhales a disagreeable 
musky odor, which will readily distinguish it. 

5. Bristly Currant. (R. resinosum, Pursh.) — This was dis- 
covered in our mountains by Fraser. I have not myself met with 
it. It is covered in every part, not excepting the fruit, with 
resinous glandular hairs, by which it may be recognized. 

HUCKLEBERRIES.— The fruit so called in this State is com- 
prised in two genera; the first (Gaylussacia) including those 
which have a black or blackish berry, and leaves generally cov- 
ered with small glandular dots; the second (Vaccinium) includ- 
ing those with a blue, red or greenish berry. The blue ones are 
known in some States as Blueberries or Bilberries. The red are 
Cranberries. The greenish one is in this State called Gooseberry 
and Deerberry. 

1. Blue Huckleberry. (Gaylussacia frondosa, Torr. and 
Gr.) — Common in the Lower and Middle Districts on the borders 



8 The Shrubs of North Carolina 

of low grounds, 2 to 3 feet high, with pale,' somewhat wrinkled 
leaves, which are whitish underneath, and 1 to 3 inches long. The 
berries are dark blue, large and sweet, perhaps the finest flavored 
we have, ripening in June. 

2. Dwarf Huckleberry. (G. dumosa, Torr. and Gr.) — A low 
species about a foot high, with creeping roots, very common in 
dry woods of the Lower and Middle Districts. It is somewhat 
hairy and glandular, the leaves broad, wedge-shaped, green on 
both sides, and the fruit smooth, black and insipid. A larger 
form of this (var: hirtella) has the berries also hairy. 

3. Black Huckleberry. (G. resinosa, T. and Gr.) — Belongs 
to the Middle and Upper Districts, 2 to 3 feet high and much 
branched. The leaves are 2 to 3 inches long, and thickly 
sprinkled with resinous atoms. The berries are black, shining 
and very pleasant. There is a white variety of this, found in 
the mountains by Mr. Buckley. 

4. Bear Huckleberry. Bearberry. (G. ursina, Gray.) — ■ 
Found in the sides of the mountains south of the French Broad 
River, 2 to 3 feet high, and resembling No. 3. But in the latter 
the flowers are cylindrical; in the Bearberry cup-shaped. The 
berry is purplish or dark red, insipid and dry, ripening in July 
and August. 

1. Swamp Huckleberry. (Vaccinium corymbosum, Linn). — 
Abundant in swampy grounds of the Lower and Middle Districts, 
and probably extending into the Upper. It is from 5 to 10 feet 
high, with very variable leaves, but generally thin, pale and 
smooth. The berries are large, deep blue, subacid and pleasant, 
ripening in May and June. 

There is a variety of this (var: atrococcum, Gray), having a 
similar range and locality and size, but much less common, with 
thicker leaves, which are white-downy underneath, and with 
berries dark blue. Dr. Hunter finds this variety with a white 
berry in Lincoln and Burke Counties. 

2. Pale Dwarf Blueberry. (V. Constablsei, Gray.) — About 

1 foot high, abundant on the bald summit of Roan Mountain 
(where it was first discriminated by Prof. Gray,) and not un- 
likely on others. It is of a pale whitish aspect, with leaves 1 to 

2 inches long, and blue sweet berries. 

3. (V. tenellum, Ait.) — Common on the borders of small 
swamps in the Lower District and extending somewhat into the 
Middle; about 2 feet high, with green, angled branches. The 
leaves are 1/2 to- 1 inch long, narrow, wedge-shaped, slightly 
toothed at the top, and of a bright green. Berries black, small, 
of little worth. 



The Shrubs of North Carolina 9 

4. Bristly Huckleberry. (V. hirsutum, Buckley.) — Dis- 
covered in the Cherokee Mountains by Mr. Buckley, and easily 
recognized by its bristly branches, leaves, flowers and fruit. 

5. Deerberry. Gooseberry. (V. stamineum, Linn.) — Very 
common all over the State in dry woods, 1 to 4 feet high, and very 
pretty when in blossom. The berries -are greenish-white, sour 
and astringent, larger than any other of our Huckleberries. 

6. (V. erythrocarpon, Michx.) — A shrub 2 to 4 feet high, 
found upon Grandfather, Flat Top and Roan Mountains. The 
leaves are rather hairy and with small teeth on the edges. The 
flowers have long divisions that are rolled backwards precisely 
like those of the Cranberry. The fruit is small, reddish or pur- 
plish, and insipid, somewhat like that of the Bearberry. 

7. Sparkleberry. (V. arboreum, Michx.) — Found from the 
coast to Cherokee, 8 to 20 feet high, the leaves smooth, rather 
stiff and shining. They are evergreen, at least in the Lower 
District. The fruit is black and small, dry, granular and slightly 
astringent, but of pleasant flavor, ripening in October. When in 
blossom it is quite a showy shrub. The bark of the root is very 
astringent, and is used in chronic dysentery. 

8. Creeping Huckleberry. (V. crassifolium, Andr.) — A 
small species with stems (1 to 2 feet long) creeping close upon 
the earth in wet savannas of the Lower District. The leaves are 
small, Vi to 14 i ncft long, evergreen, thick and shining. The 
fruit is red, becoming black, tasteless. 

9. Cranberry. (V. macrocarpon, Ait.) — A small trailing 
plant with pale evergreen leaves, common in the mountain 
swamps of Ashe and Yancey, and also in Pasquotank, Hyde and 
other counties in the north-eastern part of the State. The fine 
acid fruit of this plant is well known and universally esteemed. 

Coral Berry. (Symphoricarpus vulgaris, Michx.) — A small 
shrub, 2 to 3 feet high, frequent in arid gravelly soils, especially 
by road sides, throughout the Middle District. The leaves are 
rather stiff, about 1 inch long, downy beneath. The flowers are 
of no beauty, but the compact clusters of dark red berries in the 
fork of nearly all the leaves, and which hang on through the 
Winter, have made it an object of attention among gardeners and 
florists. This is sometimes so much of a nuisance on plantations, 
on account of its creeping tangled roots, as to have gained the 
uncouth name of Devil's shoe-strings. 

Bermuda or French Mulberry. (Callicarpa Americana, 
Linn.)— Quite common in light soils and dry, open woods of the 
Lower District, especially along fence-rows and the borders of 
settlements. It is 3 to 6 feet high, with coarse, rough, grayish 



10 The Shrubs of North Carolina 

unsightly leaves, which are 4 to 5 inches long and round-toothed 
on the edges. But in Winter the numerous clusters of light- 
purplish berries which encircle the summit of the branches at 
regular intervals for 12 or 18 inches, give it a very striking and 
pleasing appearance. These berries are juicy, slightly aromatic 
and sweetish, and are sometimes eaten, but are probably not very 
wholesome. 

Mistletoe. (Phoradendron flavescens, Nutt.) — Well known 
throughout the State, and needing no description. With us it 
seems to prefer the Oaks and Locust, but at the North and West, 
Elms and Hickories. Deer are very fond of this plant. This is 
a different plant from the European Mistletoe, the aureus ramus 
of Virgil. 

1. High Blackberry. (Rubus villosus, Ait.) — This is our 
common Blackberry of the swamps and fallow lands, 4 to 10 feet 
high, and the leaves slightly hairy or smooth, and green on both 
sides. It is found throughout the State. The root of this is 
slightly astringent, and is a popular remedy for diarrhoea. 

2. Low Blackberry. (R. cuneifolius, Pursh.) — Common in 
old fields and by road sides in the Lower and Middle Districts, 
2 to 4 feet high, the leaves white and downy beneath. Smaller in 
all parts than No. 1, the berries generally sweeter. 

3. Dewberry. (R. trivialis, Michx.) — Generally well known 
under this name, but most abundant in the Middle District. This 
is a trailing species with smooth green leaves, growing mostly in 
dry soils, and with larger, sweeter fruit than the preceding. 

4. Swamp Blackberry. (R. hispidus, Linn.) — A prostrate 
species like the preceding, found in the mountain swamps, but 
every way more delicate, with thinner leaves, and with weak 
prickles that hardly deserve the name. Fruit black, small and 
sour. 

5. Black or Purple Raspberry. (R. occidentals, Linn.) — 
Grows on the borders of woods and in thickets through the 
Middle District. The fruit is very pleasant but rather dry, and 
much inferior to the cultivated species. 

6. Flowering Raspberry. (R. odoratus, Linn.) — Found only 
in the mountains along rivulets and in cool, shaded ravines. This 
is without prickles, but is covered with clammy hairs, is 4 to 5 
feet high, and has leaves 6 to 7 inches long, divided into about 5 
short segments. The flowers are quite ornamental, about 2 inches 
broad and looking like a small single Rose. The fruit is broad, 
red and dry, but pleasant flavored. 



The Shrubs of North Carolina 11 

1. Swamp Rose. (Rosa Carolina, Linn.) — This is from 3 to 
6 feet high, is generally confined to low damp grounds, and has 
stout, hooked prickles. 

2. Wild or Dwarf Rose. (R. lucida, Ehrh.) — Generally pre- 
fers dry soils, and is found in all the Districts. It is about half 
the size of No. 1, has the leaves shining on the upper side, and has 
straight prickles, which will distinguish it from the preceding. 

3. Sweet Brier. (R. rubiginosa, Linn.) — Extensively natu- 
ralized along roads and about settlements, especially in the 
Middle District, and easily recognized by the pleasant fragrance 
derived from the rusty colored glands on the underside of the 
leaves. This is sometimes known as the Eglantine. 

4. Cherokee Rose. (R. laevigata, Michx.i) — Cultivated in the 
Lower and Middle Districts, often trained over fences, and, if 
well managed, serves well for hedging. It is remarkable for its 
smooth, dark, evergreen leaves and white single flowers. It is 
singular that the native region of this Rose is unknown. 

1. Elder. (Sambucus Canadensis, Linn.) — There is no por- 
tion of the State, except the higher parts of the Mountains, where 
this shrub is not found. Its leaves are smooth and its berries 
dark purple. The inner bark is of popular use in ointments for 
sores. An infusion of the leaves is sometimes used for expelling 
insects from vines, &c. An infusion of the dried flowers is a 
domestic remedy for colds. The ripe berries afford a delicate test 
for detecting acids and alkalies. 

2. Red-Berried Elder. (S. pubens, Michx.) — Grows only on 
the higher Mountains above the range of the preceding, from 
which it is at once distinguished by its red berries and the downy 
underside of its leaves. It belongs chiefly to a high latitude. 

1. Black Haw. (Viburnum prunifolium, Linn.) — Common 
in rather dry rich soils from the coast to the lower part of the 
Upper District, 8 to 15 feet high, handsome when in flower. The 
blossoms are small, white, in flat clusters, which are two or three 
inches broad, and destitute of a common stem. The leaves, 1 or 
2 inches long, are smooth and shining above. The fruit is about 
half an inch long, bluish-black, sweetish and eatable. 

2. Possum Haw. (V. nudum, Linn.) — Has a similar range 
with No. 1, and grows in cold swampy grounds, 6 to 12 feet high. 
The flower-clusters in this are supported on a short common- 
stem. The leaves are larger and of thicker texture than in the 
former, dull green above, and covered with rusty scales beneath. 
The fruit is a deep blue. In the Mountains I have heard this 
called Shawnee Haw. 



12 The Shrubs of North Carolina 

There is a form of this (var: angustifolium), with smaller, 
narrower, and brighter leaves, which I have met with in Hender- 
son County. 

3. (V. obovatum, Walt.) — A shrub or small tree, growing on 
the banks of streams, but not common in this State. The leaves 
are 1/2 to 1 inch long, rather thick, smooth, broader at the upper 
end, and faintly toothed. The flower-clusters are without a 
general stem. The fruit is black. 

4. Sheep Berry. (V. Lentago, Linn.) — Found only in the 
Mountains, 10 or 15 feet high. The leaves are rather thin, 3 to 
4 inches long, smooth, with a tapering point, sharply toothed, 
their stem and middle nerve beneath, together with the flower 
branches, sprinkled with rusty atoms. The fruit is first red, then 
bluish-black, and is eatable when fully ripe. 

5. Arrow-wood. (V. dentatum, Linn.) — Grows in low 
grounds of the Lower and Middle Districts, but is not very com- 
mon. It is 8 to 12 feet high, with ash-colored bark, and by the 
flowers and fruit would be at once recognized as belonging to the 
same genus as Nos. 1 and 2. The leaves are roundish, 2 or 3 
inches long, coarsely and sharply toothed, thin and smooth, the 
lateral veins quite straight, and deeply impressed above. The 
fruit is roundish and deep blue, and slightly rough. The young 
straight branches of this were used by the Indians for making 
arrows. 

6. Downy Arrow-wood. (V. pubescens, Pursh.) — Very 
similar to No. 5, but smaller, 3 or 4 feet high, the underside of 
the leaves downy, and growing only in the rocky soil of the 
Mountains. 

7. Maple-leaved Arrow-wood. (V. acerifolium, Linn.) — A 
shrub 2 to 5 feet high, found in the Mountains and on rocky hills 
of the Middle District, as low down as Orange, with leaves 3 or 
4 inches long, shaped like those of a Maple. The berries are 
whitish, becoming purplish-black. The slender stems, by remov- 
ing the pith, make good fuse-sticks for blasting, and will serve 
equally well for blasts of tobacco-smoke. 

8. Hobble-Bush. Tangle-Legs. (V. lantanoides, Michx.) — 
A small straggling shrub found in cold, damp places in the Moun- 
tains. The branches spread upon the ground, and, taking root at 
their ends, form well secured loops for tripping the feet of inex- 
perienced wayfarers; a habit which has been revenged upon by 
the unlucky, in the names imposed upon it of American Way- 
farer's Tree and the Devil's Shoe-strings. The leaves are 3 to 6 
inches broad, heart-shaped, very veiny, the underside having a 
rusty down. The berries are first crimson, then black. The 



The Shrubs of North Carolina 13 

flowers on the margin of the broad clusters of this species are 
very large (by abortion), like those of the well-known Snow-ball 
of our Gardens, which is a species (V. Opulus) of this genus. 

Prickly Ash. (Aralia spinosa, Linn.) — Found in tolerably 
rich soil from the coast to Cherokee, but not very abundant in 
any locality. It is seldom 20 feet high with us, and is remark- 
able for its straight, club-shaped, prickly stem or trunk, with the 
compound leaves spreading like those of a Palm from its summit. 
An infusion of the fresh bark of the root is emetic and cathartic, 
and is employed, as are also the berries, in spiritous infusion, in 
rheumatic affections. These are thought by some to be also a 
valuable remedy for the bite of a rattlesnake. 

Privet. (Ligustrum vulgare, Linn.)— Occasionally natu- 
ralized about settlements. Berries black. This is suited for low 
hedges. 

1. Spice Bush. (Benzoin odoriferum, Nees.) — Known also as 
Spice Wood, Wild Allspice, and Fever Bush. Grows in damp 
woods throughout the State, and, wherever found, known under 
one or other of these names. It is a strongly scented shrub, 
smooth, 3 to 6 feet high, with dark red berries, and leaves 3 or 4 
inches long. An infusion of the twigs is sometimes used in 
country fevers, and for sickly cattle in the Spring. 

2. (B. melissaefolium, Nees.) — Belongs to the Lower and Mid- 
dle Districts in low grounds and on the borders of shallow ponds, 
2 or 3 feet high, leaves silky on both sides, 1 or 2 inches long, 
slightly heart-shaped; berries red. I am indebted to Dr. McRee 
and Prof. Mitchell for my knowledge of this species. 

Pond Bush. (Tetranthera geniculata, Nees.) — Occupies small 
ponds in the Lower District, giving a gray smoky aspect to these 
localities. It is rarely met with in the lower part of the Middle 
District. It is 10 or 15 feet high, with smooth, zigzag branches, 
and small oval leaves, % to 1 inch long, and red berries. 

This and the genus next preceding are closely related to the 
Sassafras, and, like it, have small yellowish flowers which appear 
before the leaves. 

Leather-wood. (Dirca palustris, Linn.) — Widely diffused 
over the country, but in this State occurring sparingly upon 
shaded rivulets in the Middle and Upper Districts. It is 3 to 5 
feet high, and the branches have such a tough and pliable bark 
that they make excellent ligatures, for which they were used by 
the Indians, and from which the shrub derives its name. The 
fruit is a small reddish berry. 



14 . The Shrubs of North Carolina : 

Carolina Buckthorn. (Frangula Caroriniana, Gray.) — A 
thornless shrub, 4 to 6 feet high, belonging to moderately fertile 
soils in the Middle and Lower Districts, but rare in the latter. 
The leaves are 3 or 4 inches long, 1 or 2 wide, dark green, smooth 
and shining, and ribbed with very straight parallel veins. The 
berry is blackish, of the size of a small pea. 

1. Sumach. (Rhus copallina, Linn.) — Very common through- 
out the State, usually 6 to 10 feet high, sometimes a small tree 15 
feet high, readily distinguished by its common leaf-stem being 
margined or winged between the leaflets. The crimson hairs on 
the berries possess a strong acid, (said to be Malic,) an infusion 
of which, with sugar, makes an agreeable cooling beverage, and, 
without sugar, is a very useful gargle for weak or sore throats. 

2. Smooth Sumach. (R. glabra, Linn.) — This is 6 to 10 feet 
high, growing in the Middle and Upper Districts, and is remark- 
ably smooth in all its parts. A milky juice issues from the 
wounded bark. The large clusters of red fruit are more compact 
than in No. 1, having an acid secretion as in that. The branches 
and leaves are astringent, and are used for tanning. 

3. Staghorn Sumach. (R. typhina, Linn.) — Belongs to the 
Upper District, 10 to 20 feet high, the branches and flower stalks 
densely and rather softly hairy, somewhat like a Deer's horn "in 
the velvet." The leaflets are narrow and tapering. The bark 
issues a milky juice, and the berries are acid, as in No. 2. The 
wood is orange colored and aromatic. The bark and branches are 
used for tanning. The large clusters of purple fruit, and a fine 
foliage, render this species quite ornamental. 

4. Dwarf Sumach. (R. pumila, Michx.) — This has a general 
resemblance to No. 3, especially in the dense hairiness of the 
young branches, but the leaflets in this are much shorter, broader 
and more coarsely toothed, and the plant is only 1 to 3 feet high, 
mostly spreading over the ground. It is rather rare, but occurs 
in the Lower and Middle Districts, especially in Mecklenburg, 
where it was originally discovered by the elder Michaux. Pursh 
has represented it as being very poisonous, but it is perfectly 
harmless, as are all the preceding species. 

5. Poison Sumach. (R. venenata, DC.) — Found in all the 
Districts in cool swampy situations, where it is somewhat con- 
spicuous by its smooth green bark and pink-colored leaf -stems. 
To most persons it is exceedingly poisonous, some even being 
affected by proximity to it, especially while rain or dew is evap- 
orating from it. Others, however, can handle it with safety. 
The juice of this is a good varnish, like that of the Japan Sumach 
(R. vernicifera) , which is a very similar and was once supposed 
to be the same species. 



The Shrubs of North Carolina 15 

6. Poison Oak. (R. Toxicodendron, Linn.) — A small shrub, 
1 to 2 feet high, well known by this name from the coast to the 
lower part of the Upper District. It is less poisonous than No. 5, 
but is too mischievous to be meddled with by persons who are 
sensitive to this class of poisons. The juice is an indelible ink 
upon linen. 

It has been stated very positively in some quarters that the 
dreaded disease, known in our Mountains and at the West by the 
name of Milk Sickness, is caused by the cattle eating of this 
Poison Oak. But our Lower and Middle Districts abound. in this 
plant, where this disease is not now heard of, while in those 
portions of the Mountains where cattle are affected with it, and 
which I have examined with special reference to ascertaining its 
origin, this plant is not found, nor any other poisonous plant 
which is not common elsewhere. Besides, it is well known that 
cattle do not take the disease if kept from those grounds till the 
dew has evaporated. Its cause is yet a mystery, but I am satis- 
fied it is telluric. 

The Mountain Tea or Winter green, (Gaultheria procumbens, 
Linn.) so well known in the Mountains, rarely in the other Dis- 
tricts, for its aromatic spicy leaves and berries, is an evergreen 
shrub, but so small that it would not generally be considered 
such. 

The next two genera have a fleshy fruit, but too large to come 
under the class of Berries. They are well known by their names. 

1. Papaw. (Asimina triloba, Dunal.) — Not uncommon in 
rich bottom lands of the Middle District, 10 to 15 feet high, but 
in the primitive soil of the Western States sometimes 30 feet.. 
The flowers are dull dark-purple, over an inch wide. The fruit is 
about 3 inches long by 11/2 thick, yellow, and filled with a soft 
sweet pulp which is edible, but does not seem to be agreeable to 
most persons. The bark of the trunk and root exhales a very 
heavy unpleasant odor. The wood is remarkably light and 
spongy. 

2. Dwarf Papaw. (A. parviflora, Dunal.) — A small shrub 
similar to No. 1, but smaller every way, found in waste grounds 
in the Lower District', and in thin woods of the Middle and lower 
part of the Upper District. It is from 2 to 5 fet high, the leaves 
4 to 6 inches long, (about half the size of the preceding,) the 
greenish-purple flowers V2 i ncn l° n g an d of unpleasant odor. 
Fruit in clusters, about an inch long. 

1. Spanish Bayonet. (Yucca aloifolia, Linn.) — A native of 
the coast from North Carolina southward, frequently cultivated 
in the Lower District, and very showy when capped by its large 



16 The Shrubs of North Carolina 

cluster of white bell-shaped flowers. It is 4 to § feet high, its stiff 
leaves (12 or 18 inches long) tipped with a very sharp thorny 
point, and their edges very rough. 

2. (Y. gloriosa, Linn.) — Found also on the sandy coast, similar 
to the preceding, but smaller, and the leaves smooth on the 
edges. 

3. Bear Grass. (Y. filamentosa, Linn.) — Common in sandy 
fields nearly throughout the State, well known by the thread-like 
filaments on the edges of the leaves, and admired for the beauty 
of its flowers, borne in clusters upon a naked stem 4 to 6 feet 
high. 

The two next genera would be most generally ranked among 
Stone-fruit, though the shell of the second is very thin, and 
covered by a very thin flesh. 

Fringe Tree. (Chionanthus Virginica, Linn.) — Sometimes 
called Old Man's Beard. We have no shrub of softer and more 
delicate beauty than this, when draped in its clusters of snow- 
white, fringe-like flowers. It is found northward to southern 
Pennsylvania. In this State it grows in all the Districts, but 
most abundantly in the Middle. It is sometimes 15 to 20 feet 
high, but flowers at the height of 2 or 3 feet. Its fruit has the 
appearance and odor of a green plum, but I have never seen it 
produce fruit in the Lower District. An infusion of the roots is 
a favorite remedy in long standing intermittents and other 
chronic diseases. 

Oil-nut. Buffalo Tree. (Pyrularia oleifera, Gray.) — A 
bush 3 to 6 feet high, abundant through our mountain range, and 
reaching north to the mountains of Pennsylvania. The leaves 
are 3 to 4 inches long, becoming smooth, rather acrid to the 
taste, and oily. The fruit is an inch or more long, pear-shaped 
or roundish, with a thin shell and large oily kernel. The root has 
an unpleasant odor. 

The remaining Shrubs, including those with Nuts, are Dry- 
fruited and very various. The first Group will include such as 
have dry seed-covers, containing small seeds and opening by 
partitions. The first three genera have tubular small flowers 
like those of the Huckleberry and Sorrel Tree. 

1. Fetter-Bush. (Andromeda nitida, Bartr.) — Found only 
in the Lower District in low Pine barrens. It is 2 to 5 feet high, 
with the branches three-angled, smooth throughout; the leaves 
evergreen and shining and rather thick, 1 to 2 inches long, not 
toothed ; the flowers clustered in the forks of the leaves, white or 
reddish, with a sort of honey odor, opening in March and April. 



The Shrubs of North Carolina 17 

2. Stagger-Bush. (A. Mariana, Linn.) — Grows in the Lower 
and Middle Districts, on the margin of low grounds. It is 2 to 3 
feet high and smooth. The leaves are 1 to 2 inches long, not 
toothed, dull green ; the flowering branches generally destitute of 
leaves; the flowers in clusters along the branches, near i/i inch 
long, white and showy, opening in April and May. 

3. (A. speciosa, Michx.) — A very handsome shrub growing in 
low wet grounds of Pine barrens in the Lower District, 2 to 5 
feet high and smooth. The leaves are 1 to IV2 i ncn long, toothed, 
dull green, sometimes covered on the underside with a very white 
bloom. The flowering branches are free from leaves, 6 to 12 
inches long and very showy. The flowers are larger than in No. 
2, more bell-shaped, opening in May. 

4. Pepper-Bush. (A. ligustrina, Muhl.) — This occurs in all 
the Districts, but only in the lower part of the Upper. It is 3 to 
4 feet high, somewhat hairy. The leaves are about 2 inches long, 
sharp pointed, finely toothed, paler underside. The flowers are 
small, almost globular, scurfy, in small clusters that are leafy. 

5. (A. floribunda, Pursh.) — Rather rare, and belonging to the 
mountains, 4 to 8 feet high, the younger branches reddish and 
covered with scattered stiff hairs and glandular dots. The leaves 
are 1 to l 1 /) inch long, evergreen and rigid, rounded at base, 
sharp at top, minutely scalloped, the youngest with short hairs 
on the margin ; flowers in crowded leafy clusters. 

1. Dog Laurel. (Leucothoe Catesbsei, Gray.) — Found only in 
the mountains, where it is also called Hemlock, growing on the 
cool margins of streams. It is 2 to 4 feet high, the leaves ever- 
green, 3 to 5 inches long and 1 inch broad, with a long tapering 
point, prickly-toothed on the edges. Clusters of flowers in the 
forks of the leaves. A very pretty shrub. 

2. (L. axillaris, Don.) — On the borders of streams and wet 
places in the Lower District, and very much like No. 1. But the 
leaves are less prickly-toothed, less tapering, 2 to 3 inches long, 
broader than in the preceding, the clusters of flowers longer, and 
the flowers longer. 

3. (L. racemosa, Gray.) — Grows from the coast to the base of 
the mountains, 4 to 8 feet high, on the borders of w r et places. 
The leaves are rather thin, acute, finely toothed, 1 to IV2 inch 
long. The flowers (1/2 inch long) are on terminal straight 
branchlets, all hanging to one side, and looking like rows of teeth, 
the rows being 2 or 3 inches long. 

4. (L. recurva, Gray.) — Discovered by Mr. Buckley in the 
mountains near Paint Rock. It is 3 to 4 feet high, the leaf and 
flower-branches recurved; the leaves broader and more hairy 



18 The Shrubs of North Carolina 

than in No. 3, rounded at base, finely toothed, 'scarcely tapering, 
2 to 3 inches long, deciduous as in No. 3. 

(Cassandra calyculata, Don.) — A small shrub, 2 to 3 feet high, 
growing in damp grounds of the Lower District, and not unlikely 
in the others. The evergreen leaves are about 1 inch long, 1/3 inch 
wide, finely toothed, rather stiff, and covered, like the young 
branches, with small white scales. The flowers are on terminal 
branchlets, quite small, solitary in the forks of small leaves. 

1. Laurel. (Rhododendron maximum, Linn.) — This is rare 
north of Pennsylvania, but becomes abundant southward in the 
Alleghanies, and is common through their whole range in this 
State, where it often forms impenetrable thickets, many acres in 
extent. It also grows upon rocky hills in the Middle District as 
far east as Orange. Its usual height is 8 to 10 feet, but is some- 
times as high as 20 feet. This is a production of great beauty 
and universally admired. The flowers, about an inch broad, 
grow in compact clusters on the ends of the branches, and are 
generally of a pale rose color, but sometimes whitish, dotted with 
green and yellow on the inside. These contrast pleasingly with 
the large thick evergreen leaves. The leaves and flowers are 
reputed poisonous. The wood is very hard and fine grained, but 
not equal to that of Ivy. 

2. Oval-Leaved Laurel. (R. Catawbiense, Michx.) — This 
splendid Laurel is chiefly confined to the highest summits of our 
mountains, but is said to extend somewhat into Virginia. It is 
often confounded with the preceding, but besides its different 
locality, growing only on the tops of such mountains as the Roan 
in Yancey and Negro Mountain in Ashe, it blossoms earlier than 
the other, though at a higher elevation, has larger and more in- 
tensely colored flowers, and shorter and broader leaves. It is 5 
to 8 feet high, and handsomer than No. 1. It stands cultivation 
pretty well in the Middle District. 

3. Dwarf Laurel. (R. punctatum, Andr.) — A rusty looking 
shrub, 1 to 2 feet high, chiefly confined to the mountains of North 
Carolina and Georgia. It has a strong family likeness to the 
other species, but is too inferior to them in every respect to 
attract or deserve much attention. I have met with it only on 
Table Rock, Jonas' Ridge and Whiteside Mountain. 

1. Smooth Honeysuckle. (Azalea arborescens, Pursh.) — 
Found only along water courses in the lower part of the Upper 
District, and is 4 to 10 feet high. It is similar to the next, a 
common and well known species ; but this has smooth branchlets, 
leaves of brighter green above, and long calyx appendages at the 
base of the flower. The flowers are white and roseate, and their 



The Shrubs of North Carolina 19 

odor may be perceived at a great distance; this being the most 
powerfully fragrant of our Honeysuckles. For cultivation this 
will rank next in beauty to the Yellow Honeysuckle. 

2. Clammy Honeysuckle. (A. viscosa, Linn.) — Very com- 
mon through the State, 2 to 6 or 8 feet high, the branchlets 
bristly, and the flowers covered with clammy hairs. The flowers 
are white or flesh-colored and very fragrant. In this and No. 1 
the flowers appear after the leaves have expanded. In the next 
two species they appear before or with the leaves. 

A variety of this (var: glauca) occurs with paler and rougher 
leaves, their underside covered with a white bloom. 

3. Purple Honeysuckle. (A. nudiflora, Linn.) — Very com- 
mon in great varieties of soil through the State, 2 to 6 feet high, 
but usually very small in poor dry soils.- The flowers vary from 
a flesh-color to pink or purple, and are sometimes quite white. 
They are destitute of fragrance. 

4. Yellow Honeysuckle. (A. calendulacea, Michx.) — This 
is found only at a considerable elevation on our mountains, where 
it is abundant and well known by the name here given. It is com- 
monly from 3 to 6 feet high, and varies very much in the color of 
its flowers, but most frequently they are some shade of yellow. 
Bartram, in his "Travels," calls this the Fiery Azalea, and says : 
"This epithet Fiery I annex to this most celebrated species of 
Azalea, as being expressive of the appearance of its flowers, 
which are in general of the color of the finest red lead, orange 
and bright gold, as well as yellow and cream color. These 
various splendid colors are not only in separate plants, but fre- 
quently all the varieties and shades are seen in separate branches 
on the same plant, and the clusters of blossoms cover the shrubs 
in such incredible profusion on the hillsides, that suddenly open- 
ing to view from dark shades, we are alarmed with the appre- 
hension of the woods being set on fire. This is certainly the most 
gay and brilliant flowering shrub yet known." 

1. Ivy. (Kalmia latifolia, Linn.) — A beautiful shrub known 
from New England to Georgia, either by the above name, or as 
Laurel, Mountain Laurel and Calico Bush. In this State it is 
known under the first and last names, the first being most in use. 
It is most abundant in the mountains, but is found along streams 
and on rocky hills of the Middle District, extending somewhat 
into the Lower, even into the Dismal Swamp. This, in combi- 
nation with the Laurel, which often accompanies it and blossoms 
at the same time, presents a scene of floral beauty rarely equaled 
in this country. Like the Laurel, this is an evergreen, and forms 
also impenetrable thickets, but its leaves are shining, much 
darker and smaller. It is 10 to 15 and even 20 feet hierh. 



20 The Shrubs of North Carolina 

The leaves are poisonous to cattle, and a snuff made from them 
is a powerful sternutatory. An ointment made from the pow- 
dered leaves has been successfully used for scald heads. The 
wood, particularly of the roots, is exceedingly hard, fine-grained, 
marked with red lines, and capable of a good polish. We have 
hardly any wood better adapted for the handles of tools, small 
screws, and similar articles. This and the Laurels can be raised 
from seeds. 

2. Wicky. (K. angustifolia, Linn.) — This has an extensive 
range over the United States. In this State it is common on the 
small Pine-barren swamps of the Lower Districts, but is rare in 
the others. It is 1 to 3 feet high ; the leaves are 1 to 2 inches long 
and !/2 i ncn wide, pale green, paler underneath; the flowers 
roseate or crimson, about 1/2 i ncn broad, being one-third the size 
of the preceding, but of the same elegant form, and growing in 
clusters along the branches. This is a beautiful undershrub and 
is greatly improved by cultivation. It is a poisonous plant, 
especially to sheep, and is in some places called Sheep Laurel. A 
decoction of the leaves is a domestic remedy for cutaneous dis- 
eases in man and beast. 

3. (K. cuneata, Michx.) — Similar to the Wicky, found in the 
Lower District, but very rare. It may be distinguished from 
that by the flowers being white at top and red at bottom, and by 
the leaves being scattered along the branches, instead of grow- 
ing in circles of three, as in No. 2. 

Sand Myrtle. (Leiophyllum buxifolium, Ell.) — A small ever- 
green shrub, 6 to 12 inches high, looking somewhat like the 
Garden Box, with small, dark green leaves, and small white 
flowers clustered on the ends of the branches. It grows in sandy 
woods of Brunswick County, and on the rocky summits of our 
mountains, from the Grandfather to Whiteside. 

False Heath. (Menziesia globularis, Salisb.) — Common on 
the higher mountains, 3 to 6 feet high, with thin, hairy, deciduous 
leaves, and small, reddish, bell-shaped flowers, like those of a 
Huckleberry, and a small, woody seed-vessel, like those of Andro- 
meda, etc. 

1. White Alder. Sweet Pepper-Bush. (Clethra alnifolia, 
Linn.) — Grows near damp places in the Lower and Middle Dis- 
tricts, 2 to 4 feet high. The leaves are a little like those of the 
common Alder, but are smaller and narrower. The flowers are 
small, white, and very fragrant, terminating the branches in 
racemes which are 2 to 3 inches long. A form of this (var: 
tomentosa) has leaves with a white down on the underside. 



The Shrubs of North Carolina 21 

2. Mountain Pepper-Bush. (C. acuminata, Michx.) — Quite 
an ornamental shrub, 10 to 15 feet high, growing in the moun- 
tains from Ashe to Cherokee. Its leaves are thin, pointed, fine- 
toothed, and 5 to 6 inches long. The racemes of white flowers 
are larger than in No. 1, and drooping. 

(Itea Virginica, Linn.) — At a little distance this has some re- 
semblance to the White Alder, but with a smoother aspect, and 
the flowers are not fragrant. It belongs to the borders of wet 
places from the coast to Lincoln, is 4 to 8 feet high, and has small 
white flowers in drooping racemes, which are 3 to 5 inches long 
on the ends of the branches. 

1. Wild Hydrangea. (Hydrangea arborescens, Linn.) — A 
smooth shrub, 2 to 5 feet high, growing along streams and on 
mountain and hill sides of the Upper and Middle Districts. The 
leaves are 3 to 5 inches long, heart-shaped, pointed, toothed. The 
flowers are whitish, in flat-topped clusters, some of those on the 
margin being large and showy like those of, the cultivated Hy- 
drangea. 

2. Snowy Hydrangea. (H. radiata, Walt.) — Found only on 
the mountains west of the Blue Ridge from Yancey to Georgia. 
North of this it has not, I think, been detected. It is from 3 to 6 
or 8 feet high. The leaves are heart-shaped, 4 to 6 inches long, 
the underside clothed with a thick, silvery-white down. The 
barren flowers, which give this genus the peculiarity for which it 
is admired, are in this species found only around the border of 
the flat-topped cluster, but are said to become much more 
abundant in cultivation. They are of a pure white, an inch or 
more broad. This pretty shrub would be much prized in gardens, 
if there were not some more showy species in cultivation. 

1. Syringa. (Philadelphus grandiflorus, Wild.) — This very 
ornamental shrub, now common in our yards and gardens, prized 
for its graceful, slender branches and snow-white flowers, does 
not appear to be abundant in this State. I am acquainted with 
but a single locality of it, which is in Hickory Nut Gap ; though 
it is doubtless to be found along other streams in the upper part 
of the State. It is 6 to 10 feet high, the leaves about 2 inches 
long, pointed, with few distant teeth, rather soft and hairy, and 
tasting somewhat like Cucumbers. The flowers are an inch or 
more broad. 

2. Rough Syringa. (P. hirsutus, Nutt.) — Every way smaller 
than No. 1, the leaves quite rough on the upper side and whitish- 
downy beneath. This grows on the French Broad River, a few 
miles below Asheville. 



22 The Shrubs of North Carolina 

1. Mock Orange. (Sty rax grandifolia, Ait.) — A very beauti- 
ful shrub, 3 to 12 feet high, with rather large leaves, 3 to 6 inches 
long, and of a grayish aspect from the presence of a whitish down 
on their underside. The flowers are from 15 to 20 on loose 
nodding racemes, white, very fragrant, in size and form very 
similar to those of the Orange. It grows on light rich soils in the 
Lower and Middle Districts, as far west as Lincoln. This is well 
worthy of a place in shrubberies, but has received but little 
attention. 

2. (S. Americana, Lam.) — Distinguished from No. 1 by its 
smooth, green leaves, 1 or 2 inches long, and smaller flowers, only 
3 or 4 on a raceme. It is 4 to 8 feet high, not inelegant, but of 
inferior beauty to the other, and grows on the borders of swamps 
in the Lower District. 

1. Bush Honeysuckle. (Diervilla trifida, Msench.) — A 
small, rather delicate shrub, 3 to 5 feet high, with pointed toothed 
leaves which are 3 or 4 inches long, and have short foot-stalks. 
The flowers are in clusters of (generally) 3 in the forks of the 
upper leaves, greenish yellow, and funnel-shaped, like those of 
the Woodbine. This is found only in the mountains. 

2. (D. sessilifolia, Buckley.) — Like the preceding, but larger 
in several particulars, and the leaves clasp the branches, being 
destitute of a foot-stalk. Found in the mountains. 

1. Strawberry Bush. (Euonymus Americanus, Linn.) — A 
shrub 2 to 5 feet high, found in all the Districts, and known by 
the names of Burning Bush, Fish-ivood, and Bursting Heart, be- 
sides the one first given. The branches are square, straight but 
flexible, very smooth, and about as green as the leaves. The 
flowers are small, purplish or greenish, and unattractive. The 
fruit gives the plant a peculiar beauty, for which chiefly it is 
prized in shrubberies. This is of a bright crimson color when 
mature, and covered with small warts which give it somewhat 
the aspect of a small strawberry. This finally bursts open, ex- 
posing its bright scarlet seeds. 

2. Burning Bush. (E. atropurpureus, Jacq.) — Every way 
larger than the preceding, its flowers dark purple, and the fruit 
smooth. I have not met with it, and am indebted to Prof. 
Mitchell for my knowledge of it as an inhabitant of this State. 

(Stillingia ligustrina, Michx.)- — A shrub with slender spread- 
ing branches, 6 to 12 feet high, very rare in this State, and not 
found, I think, north of Cape Fear River. The leaves are 1 to 3 
inches long, not toothed, the upper end obtuse, tapering at the 
lower end, and with a short foot-stalk. For my knowledge of 
this plant I am under obligations to Dr. McRee. The Tallow Tree 



The Shrubs of North Carolina 23 

(S. sebifera), cultivated farther south, and the Queen's Delight 
(S. sylvatica), an herbaceous plant of the Pine barrens, are 
members of this genus. 

1. (Stuartia Virginica, Cav.) — This and the Loblolly Bay are 
the only representatives in this country of the admired Camellia 
family, and the still more important Tea Plant. It is one of our 
most beautiful shrubs, and yet has nowhere, so far as I know, 
obtained a popular name. It is found in rich soils in the eastern 
half of our Lower District, extending north into Lower Virginia, 
and southward to Florida. It is 6 to 15 feet high, blossoming in 
April and May. The flowers are white, about the size of the 
Cherokee Rose, silky on the outer side, covered on the inner with 
a circle of stamens with bright purple filaments and blue 
anthers. 

2. (S. pentagyna, L'Her.) — Like the preceding, without a 
name. It is similar to the preceding, only its flowers are cream- 
colored and its staminate filaments are white. Found in the 
Middle and Upper Districts, from Wake to Cherokee. The seecl- 
vessel in these two is an ovoid woody capsule. 

Toothache Tree. (Zanthoxylum Carolinianum, Lam.) — 
Known also by the names of Pellitory and Prickly Ash. The last 
name, though more legitimate in this application, is generally 
appropriated in this State to another plant before described. It 
is a small branching tree, 12 to 20 feet high, the old bark covered 
with prickles, and peculiar to the southern sea-coast. The bark, 
leaves, and fruit are aromatic and intensely pungent, producing 
a rapid secretion of saliva, and are a popular and useful appli- 
cation for toothache. They would probably be generally service- 
able as a counter irritant. 

1. Hardhack. (Spiraea tomentosa, Linn.) — An erect branch- 
ing pretty shrub, 2 or 3 feet high, common in low wet places of 
the Lower and Middle Districts, and the lower part of the Upper. 
The leaves are 1 to 11/2 inch long, oblong, coarse-toothed, the 
under side coated with a rusty-white down. The flowers are 
rose-colored, small, clustered on the ends of the branches in a 
compound raceme 3 or 4 inches long. 

2. Queen of the Meadow. (S. salicifolia, Linn.) — This is 
similar to No. 1, and sometimes called Meadow Stveet, but is 
taller and the flowers generally white. The leaves are larger, 
smoother and thinner. It belongs to damp bushy places in the 
Middle District, and in valleys and along streams in the lower 
part of the Upper. 

3. Nine Bark. (S. opulifolia, Linn.) — this is found upon 
river banks in the western part of the State, 6 to 10 feet high, 



24 The Shrubs of North Carolina 

with slender curved branches, often spreading like a vine over 
other shrubs, and covered with a profusion' of flat clusters of 
small, white, but not showy flowers. Leaves about 2 inches long 
and broad, divided into 3 segments, and coarsely toothed. The 
reddish fruit is membranaceous, composed of 3 to 5 sacs united 
at base. The old bark peels off in thin layers. 

Yellow Root. (Zanthorhiza apiifolia, L'Her.) — A small 
shrubby plant, 1 or 2 feet high, generally spreading on the 
ground, found on moist rocky hillsides of the Middle and Upper 
Districts. The leaves are dark green and divided somewhat like 
those of Parsley. The flowers are small, dark purple, in loose 
slender clusters, appearing before the leaves. The roots are in- 
tensely bitter, of a yellow color, and were used by the Indians in 
making a yellow dye. 

Red Root. (Ceanothus Americanus, Linn.) — Common in dry 
woods from the coast to the mountains, 1 to 3 feet high, and the 
ends of the numerous small branches having loose clusters (1 or 
2 inches long) of small white flowers supported on white foot- 
stalks. The leaves are 1 or 2 inches long, sharply toothed, and 
have 3 prominent veins. The root is dark red and qufte astrin- 
gent, and is frequently used in infusion, tincture, or powder, 
where astringency is required. It is said also to furnish a dye of 
a cinnamon color. The dried leaves served as a substitute for 
Tea during the Revolution, and hence got the name of New Jersey 
Tea. It is said to be quite as good as some of the Black Teas. 

1. Indigo Bush. (Amorpha fruticosa, Linn.) — A very pretty 
shrub, 6 to 15 feet high, growing upon streams in all the Dis- 
tricts, but more frequent in the Lower. The flowers are small, 
dark purple, crowded on spikes which are 3 or 4 inches long and 
clustered together. It is said to have been used for the manu- 
facture of Indigo, but, I imagine, with not much profit. 

2. Dwarf Indigo Bush. (A. herbacea, Walt.) — Like No. 1 in 
its whole habit, but only 2 or 3 feet high, of a grayish aspect, and 
with the flowers whitish or pale-blue. It is frequent in the 
barrens of the Lower District. The leaves in these two species 
are pinnate, like those of the Locust and Hickory. The fruit is 
a very small pod, sprinkled with glands. 

He Huckleberry. (Cyrilla racemiflora, Walt.) — This is an 
absurd name, but I have never heard any other. This smooth 
shrub inhabits the borders of swamps and branches in the Lower 
District, and is 10 to 15 feet high. The leaves are oblong, shin- 
ing, 2 to 3 inches long. The small white flowers grow on racemes 
that are 3 to 5 inches long, and that are clustered on the ends of 
the previous year's growth, and make this quite ornamental. The 



The Shrubs of North Carolina 25 

bark at the base of the trunk pulverizes naturally, and is much 
used as a styptic and in applications to old -ulcers. 

(Buckleya distichophylla, Torr.) — A smooth shrub, about 6 
feet high, with slender grayish branches, known only upon the 
streams of this State that flow westward, as the Pigeon and 
French Broad Rivers. Its thin delicate foliage reminds one by 
its general aspect of the English and Catalonian Jasmine of our 
gardens. The flowers are greenish and inconspicuous. The 
fruit is about i/2 i ncn l° n &> growing solitary on the end of a 
branch. 

(Darbya umbellulata, Gray.) — Like the preceding, a very rare 
plant, as yet known only in two or three localities in Georgia, and 
in the bend of the Catawba, near Lincolnton, in this State. It is 
1 to 2 feet high, with opposite branches and leaves, the latter 
ovate, acute, entire, 1 to 2 inches long, 1 to 11/2 wide, rounded 
at base, and with short foot-stalks. The flowers are small, green- 
ish, in a cluster of 3 to 8, which is borne on a foot-stalk in the 
forks of the leaves. 

Witch Hazel. (Hamamelis Virginica, Linn.) — Well known 
by this name through the State. It has the peculiarity of flower- 
ing late in the Fall after the leaves have dropped, and maturing 
its fruit in the following Spring. Its popular name is derived 
from the use made of its branches in discovering hidden springs 
of water, minerals, etc. Other kinds, as of the Peach, are indeed 
sometimes used for this purpose, but I venture to affirm that none 
in the whole vegetable kingdom are better than those of Witch 
Hazel. 

Dwarf Alder. (Fothergilla alnifolia, Linn.) — Unknown north 
of Virginia. In this State it is found from the coast to Lincoln. 
In the Lower District it is 1 to 2 feet high, often but a single un- 
branched stem, terminated by a tuft of small white flowers be- 
fore the leaves appear. It grows here upon the borders of Pine- 
barren swamps, and is rarely much branched. In the Middle 
District it is found upon rocky hills, is 3 to 5 feet high, forming 
a branched straggling shrub. The foliage varies a good deal, so 
that several species have been made of it by some authors ; but 
the leaves are generally not unlike those of Alder. The fruit is 
a hard capsule, like that of Witch Hazel, and, like that, bursting 
elastically and expelling the hard bony seeds to a considerable 
distance. 

Sweet Fern. (Comptonia asplenifolia, Ait.) — A small shrub- 
by plant, 1 or 2 feet high, with leaves (3 or 4 inches long) much 
resembling some of the Ferns, and possessing a grateful aromatic 
odor like that of the Wax Myrtle. It is found chiefly on rocky 



26 The Shrubs of North Carolina 

or gravelly hills of the Upper and Middle Districts, but is oc- 
casionally found in dry and sandy woods in the upper part of 
the Lower. An infusion of this plant is a popular remedy for 
dysentery. 

Wax Myrtle. Candle-berry Myrtle. (Myrica cerifera, 
Linn.) — A well-known shrub with fragrant leaves, common in 
the Lower District, and found in fruit from 1 to 18 feet in 
height. The small berry-like nuts, which often hang two or three 
years on the branches, are covered with a fragrant wax which 
has been used in the manufacture of soap and candles. The 
latter burn long and diffuse an agreeable odor. A decoction of 
the berries has been used for tetters and similar affections. The 
root is said to be a specific for tooth-ache. 

1. Hazel Nut. (Corylus Americana, Walt.) — A shrub 4 to 8 
feet high, found in our mountains, and extending north to New 
England. The nut is much esteemed, but is smaller and harder 
shelled than the European Hazel or Filbert (C. Avellana). 

2. Beaked Hazel Nut. (C. rostrata, Ait.) — Of similar size 
and range with the preceding ; but this has the husk of the fruit 
prolonged into a beak or horn, and it extends into the Middle 
District as far down as Orange. 

The remaining shrubs are so various in their fruit and general 
habit, that, to save space, they are here grouped miscellaneously 
together, most of them being well known by their popular names. 

Button Bush. Box. (Cephalanthus occidentalis, Linn.) — 
Common on the borders of streams and swampy grounds in the 
Lower and Middle Districts, always easily recognized by its 
round head of small white flowers, which is about an inch in 
diameter. It is 3 to 4 feet high, and very pretty when in blossom. 
The inner bark of the roots is an agreeable bitter, and is used for 
relieving obstinate coughs. 

1. Shrubby Trefoil. Hop Tree. (Ptelea trifoliata, Linn.) — 
A shrub 4 to 8 feet high, belonging to the upper part of the 
Middle District, with trifoliate leaves like those of Clover, the 
leaflets 2 to 3 inches long, somewhat hairy when young, pale on 
the underside. The flowers are small, greenish-white, in rather 
flat clusters, heavy-scented, which are succeeded by flat, winged 
fruit, like that of the Elm, but an inch broad. The fruit is bitter, 
and used as a substitute for Hops. 

2. Downy Hop Tree. (P. mollis, M. A. C.) — Every way- 
smaller than No. 1, and found only in the Lower District. Its 
leaves are more rigid, and the underside covered with a perma- 
nent, white, soft, silky down. 



The Shrubs of North Carolina 27 

Bladder Nut. (Staphylea trifolia, Linn.) — An interesting 
shrub, 5 to 10 feet high, with greenish, striped branches, tri- 
foliate leaves, the leaflets 2 to 4 inches long, taper-pointed, finely 
toothed, and smooth. The small white flowers are gathered into 
loose pendulous clusters, which are succeeded by 3-angled 
bladder-like pods about two inches long. I have met with this 
only near Hillsborough and Chapel Hill, but it is probably to be 
found along streams through the Middle District. 

1. Sweet Shrub. (Calycanthus floridus, Linn.) — This plant, 
now so extensively cultivated, and admired for the rich Straw- 
berry odor of its flowers, is a native of the southern Alleghanies. 
This species may be known by the soft down on the underside of 
the leaves, and on the branchlets, etc. The fruit of this genus is 
a sort of thick-skinned, bladdery sac, l!/2 inch long, containing 
large seeds. 

2. (C. lsevigatus, Willd.) — The leaves of this are taper-pointed, 
smooth and green on both sides, sometimes a little rough above 
and pale beneath. This is found in the mountains, and in the 
Middle District as low down as Orange. 

3. (C. glaucus, Willd.) — This is found from Lincoln westward, 
and may be recognized by the white under-surf ace of the leaf ; a 
little rough on the upper. 

1. Alder. (Alnus serrulata, Ait.) — Common on small streams 
all over the State, and too well known by the above name to need 
a description. 

2. Mountain Alder. (A. viridis, DC.) — Like the above in 
habit and general characters, but the underside of the leaves 
covered with a soft gray down. It is known at the South, only 
upon the top of Roan Mountain, from whence to northern New 
York it is not found. It occurs in Europe. 

1. Groundsel. (Baccharis halimifolia, Linn.) — Grows in both 
brackish and fresh swampy grounds of the Lower District. It 
is 6 to 12 feet high, of an ashy hue from the whitish scales that 
cover the bark and leaves. The small flower-heads are solitary, 
or a few clustered together, borne on a foot-stalk. The long, 
white, silky hairs of the seeds emerging from the heads give the 
plant a pleasing appearance in the Fall. 

2. (B. glomeruliflora, Pers.) — Like the preceding, but rarer 
and less showy, and has larger clusters of flower-heads, destitute 
of the foot-stalk. 

3. (B. angustifolia, Michx.) — Found in brackish marshes, 4 to 
8 feet high. The leaves, which in the other species are half as 
broad as long, and toothed, are in this linear and entire. 



28 The Shrubs of North Carolina 

1. Marsh Elder. (Iva frutescens, Linn.) — A coarse unsightly 
shrub of our salt marshes, 4 to 6 feet high. The whole plant is 
smoothish, and its leaves lance-shaped, toothed, and about 2 
inches long. The flower-heads are greenish and unsightly in the 
forks of the small leaves on the terminal branchlets. 

2. (I. imbricata, Walt.) — This grows upon the sea-beach, and 
is but partly shrubby, 3 or 4 feet high. The leaves are very thick 
and fleshy, 1 to li/2 inch long, rarely toothed, and wedge-shaped. 
The plant has a strong odor like old honey. 

Swamp Loosestrife. (Nessea verticillata, H. B. K.) — A half 
shrubby plant found in branch swamps of the Lower District, 4 
to 6 feet high, with slerider, curved, 4 to 6-sided stems. The 
leaves are 3 or 4 inches long, narrow like those of a Willow, 
generally growing around the stem in a circle of three. The 
flowers are clustered in the forks of the leaves, about 1/2 inch 
wide, purple or roseate, very pretty, reminding one of the blos- 
soms of the Lagerstraemia or Crape Tree. 

Arbor Vit^e. (Thuja occidentalis, Linn.) — This has its 
southern limit on the mountains in the northwestern part of the 
State. From thence through the mountains of Virginia it be- 
comes more common. It is but a shrub or small tree at the South, 
but farther north it attains a height of 50 feet, and its timber is 
used in building and for cabinet work. 

1. Cane. (Arundinaria gigantea, Chapm.) — This belongs to 
the Grass family, but, being of woody texture, falls within our 
arrangement. It is 10 to 15 or 20 feet high, found along the river 
bottoms of the Cape Fear. I am not aware of its existence north 
of that limit. According to Dr. Chapman, "it is simple the first 
year, branching the second, afterwards at indefinite periods 
fruiting, and soon after decaying." The value of the stems for 
fishing-rods is well known. 

2. Reed. (A. tecta, Muhl.) — This is the common smaller form, 
2 to 10 feet high, and found in low grounds in each District. 

This completes the list of the Shrubs of North Carolina, so 
far as they are known to me, with the exception of the following, 
which are too small and obscure to merit more than a bare 
enumeration. 

Hypericum. Of this we have five woody species, all with yel- 
low flowers, one of which (H. prolificum) is occasionally culti- 
vated under the name of Rock Rose. 

Ascyrum. Much like the preceding, also with yellow flowers. 

Flowering Moss. (Pyxidanthera barbulata, Michx.) — A very 
pretty, small, trailing evergreen, with white flowers which ap- 



The Shrubs of North Carolina 29 

pear in early Spring, and looking somewhat like a Moss in the 
absence of blossoms. Belongs to the damp Pine-barrens and Sa- 
vannas of the Lower District. 

Hudsonia. Only 3 or 4 inches high, also with yellow flowers, 
of which no locality is anywhere known but on Table Rock, N. C. 

Trailing Arbutus, or Ground Laurel. (Epigsea repens, 
Linn.) Common. 

Polygonella. In the sandy Barrens about Wilmington. 

It may be interesting to append here a comparative view of 
the Flora of North Carolina with that of the Northern and 
Southern States east of the Mississippi. In Prof. Gray's 
"Manual of Botany," which includes the States north of North 
Carolina and Tennessee, I find described 130 Trees, 183 Shrubs, 
and 30 Vines. In Dr. Chapman's "Flora of the Southern States" 
are described 126 Trees, (of which there are 112 in North Caro- 
lina,) 224 Shrubs, (176 of them in North Carolina,) and 46 
Vines (32 in this State). 



THE VINES OF NORTH CAROLINA 



These will be grouped according to the character of their 
fruit: the first nine genera having Berries- the next five, Pods; 
the next three, dry Capsules; and the remaining two, naked 
Feathered Seeds. 

GRAPES. — 1. Summer Grape. [Vitis aestivalis, Michx.] — 
Common, as are the other species, excepting the Muscadine, in 
most parts of the United States. In this State it is found in all 
the Districts, generally near streams, but sometimes in dry 
woods, climbing over trees from 30 to 50 feet. The leaves are 4 
to 6 inches broad, cut into 3 or 5 divisions, the underside clothed 
with a reddish, cobweb-like down when young, which mostly falls 
away in the course of the season. The bunches of fruit are com- 
pound, 6 to 8 inches long, the berries Ys to i/2 i ncn thick, purplish, 
blackish or bluish, with a bloom; very varying in flavor, fre- 
quently very fine. 

According to H. W. Ravenel, Esq., of Aiken, South Carolina, 
who is a good Botanist, as well as a successful cultivator of 
Grapes, the following cultivated varieties are descended from 
this species: The Warren, Pauline, Herbemont, Guignard, Clin- 
ton, Ohio, Marion, Treveling, Long Grape or Old House, Elsin^ 
borough, Seabrook, and Lenoir. With this last he identifies the 
Black July, Devereux, Thurmond, Sumter, and Lincoln Grapes. 
I find, however, that there is a difference of opinion in regard to 
the identity of the Lenoir and Lincoln varieties ; some maintain- 
ing a perceptible difference, the latter being deemed superior to 
the other. Dr. C. L. Hunter, of Lincoln, who is paying much 
attention to Grape culture, especially of our native varieties, 
pronounces the Lenoir ''one of the very best table Grapes," and 
recommends its general cultivation. He informs me that this, 
as well as the Warren, came from Georgia. 

I learn from the same gentleman that the Lincoln Grape was 
discovered about the beginning of this century, near the junction 
of the South Fork and Catawba, by Dr. Wm. McLean, and that he 
transplanted the whole vine near his house. From this stock Mr. 
John Hart, of Mecklenburg, derived his, which is still in vigorous 
existence. From this last, Dr. Butt, of Lincolnton, obtained his 
cuttings, and sent some of the fruit to Longworth, who gave it 
the name, now most in use, of the Lincoln Grape, though it was 
previously known as the Hart Grape, and McLean Grape. 

2. Fox Grape. (V. Labrusca, Linn.) — I have met with this 
only in the Middle District, where it is found in damp thickets, 



The Shrubs of North Carolina 31 

running from 15 to 25 or 30 feet. The leaves are roundish, about 
the same size as those of No. 1, but not so much divided, and 
covered underneath with a permanent thick down, which is 
generally white or gray, rarely of a faint rusty hue. The berries 
are larger than in that, being 1/2 to % inch in diameter, in small 
bunches, commonly dark purple, but sometimes amber-colored or 
whitish, and of various quality, mostly with a musky and rather 
hard pulp. 

The cultivated varieties of this are, according to Mr. Ravenel, 
the Isabella, Catawba, Bland's Madeira ^Concord, Diana, Rebecca, 
To Kalon, Anna, Mary Isabel, Ontario, Northern Muscadine, 
Hartford Prolific, Catawissa, Garrigues, Stetson's Seedling, York 
Madeira, Hyde's Eliza, Union Village, Early Chocolate, Harvard, 
Early Black, Green Prolific Kilvingion. The first two in the list 
are, I believe, the most approved, and most extensively culti- 
vated ; both of which are said to have originated in this State. 

A foreign origin has been claimed for the Isabella, but this is 
an evident error, proved in the fact that seedlings of the Isabella 
sometimes revert to our Fox Grape in every particular of leaf 
and fruit. This has been tested by Mr. Caradeuc, of South Caro- 
lina, as I learn from Mr. Ravenel. But what is regarded as a 
scientific demonstration of its American origin, is the fact that 
its seedlings sometimes have barren stocks, like all our American 
species, which is not the case with any European Grapes. Be- 
sides, the Isabella, in its specific characters, comes nearer to our 
Fox Grape than to any other. 

Dr. Hunter, who has given much attention to the history of our 
Grapes, has communicated most of the following items in regard 
to the Isabella. Dr. Laspeyre was probably its first cultivator in 
the United States, probably as early as 1805, as he sold it in the 
Wilmington Market in 1810. Judge Ruffin cultivated it in 
Orange County in 1811, under the name of Laspeyre Grape. It 
is a tradition that Gov. Smith brought it to Smithville in 1809. 
About the year 1810 Mrs. Isabella Gibbs took a rooted cutting 
from Gov. Smith's garden to Brooklyn, New York, according to 
a current account. According to Dr. Laspeyre, she got the vine 
from him. These statements may, in a sort, be reconciled, if 
Gov. Smith obtained his stock from Dr. Laspeyre. In 1819, Gen. 
Swift bought the Gibbs place, and it was there the elder Prince 
first saw and obtained this Grape, which he named the Isabella 
in compliment to Mrs. Gibbs. Dr. Hunter has some of these 
statements from Gen. Swift. Dr. Laspeyre was under the im- 
pression that this, which he called the Black Cape, was one of the 
vines which he brought from St. Domingo, but it was probably 
the accidental introduction of an American among his foreign 
stocks. Dr. Hunter seems to be of opinion that it came to the 



32 The Vines of North Carolina 

i 

Cape Fear region from South Carolina, according with the tra- 
dition mentioned in Dr. Hawks's History. 

The Catawba Grape, as I am informed by Dr. Hunter, origi- 
nated in Buncombe County on Cain Creek, an affluent of the 
French Broad. His views on 'The Origin of the Catawba Grape" 
were given last year (1859) in an article for the American 
Farmer. 

3. Muscadine. (V. vulpina, Linn.) — Known also as Bullace, 
Bull Grape, and Bullet Grape, and farther south as Fox Grape; 
in Florida, as Mustang Grape. It extends northward as far as 
Maryland and Kentucky, from whence southward it is one of the 
most common vines. In this State it is found, in various soils, 
from the coast to Cherokee, but most luxuriant in light soils of 
the Lower District, covering the loftiest trees. The bark is pale 
and smooth, that of the smaller branches dotted with minute 
warts. The leaves are about 3 inches long, thin, smooth and 
shining, coarse-toothed, and nearly round and heart-shaped. The 
berries are in small bunches, larger and thicker skinned than any 
of our other Grapes, varying in color from whitish through 
different shades of red and purple to ebony black. The quality 
of the fruit varies as much as its color, being now of a sharp acid 
flavor, and again of luscious sweetness. 

The Scuppernong, now so famous as a Table and Wine Grape, 
is a variety of this species. There are still found in the Lower 
and Middle Districts, especially in the former, wild vines bearing 
a whitish or amber berry, like the original Scuppernong, but of 
various qualities, as in the case with the colored kinds. Some of 
them are no better than the commonest Muscadines; and no one 
is superior, if equal, to the well known cultivated variety. Some 
of the dark Muscadines are very nearly as luscious as the 
Scuppernong , and have been brought under culture, as the Mish 
Grape, and Alexander's Grape, which are black, and also the 
BulUs Eye, so named from its superior size. 

The Hickman Grape I take to be identical with the true Scup- 
pernong and derived from Tyrrell County, the home of the 
original. For some of this information, as well as for the fol- 
lowing history of the Scuppernong (proper), I am indebted to 
Rev. E. M. Forbes, who has resided in the region and has taken 
much pains to obtain an authentic account of this vine. Two 
men, of the name of Alexander, while clearing land near Colum- 
bia, the county seat of Tyrrell, which stands on the east side of 
Scuppernong River, discovered this Grape, and were so much 
pleased with it that they preserved the vine and the tree upon 
which it grew. "That was the vine which I saw," says Mr. 
Forbes, "and from which other vines were propagated." They 



The Vines of North Carolina 33 

called it the "White Grape," and from it made what they called 
"Country Wine/' At the suggestion of a relative, who had been 
in the Mediterranean, and knew the indefiniteness of such names 
as these, they subsequently named the Grape from the river upon 
which it was found. "This is the history given by a grand- 
daughter of one of the discoverers, who was alive when I first 
went to Scuppernong." 

A tradition is furnished me by Dr. Hunter, that, "about the 
year 1774, the Rev. Charles Pettigrew found it on the low 
grounds of Scuppernong River, and planted out several vines." 
My limited space will not permit an exhaustive discussion of this 
matter here, and I will, therefore, only remark further upon it, 
that the notion of its origination on Roanoke Island seems op- 
posed by the name of the Grape. I have also been told by those 
who have been on the Island, that there are no vines of it there 
which were not evidently transplanted there. 

4. Frost Grape. Winter Grape. (V. cordifolia, Michx.) — 
Common in thickets along streams through the Middle District. 
The leaves are 3 to 5 inches broad, thin, smooth, toothed, and 
sometimes cut into three segments. The berries are nearly black, 
small, 14 inch thick, and very sour until dead ripe. The berries 
are sometimes greenish-white, and Lawson mentions a white 
[whitish?] variety. I have not heard of this being cultivated. 

5. (V. bipinnata, Torr. & Gr.) — This would not generally be 
taken for a member of this genus, either from its leaves, which 
are compound, like those of the China Tree, or from its fruit, 
which is uneatable. The berries are blackish, slightly hairy, and 
about the size of a small pea. It is found in the Lower and 
Middle Districts, growing in rich soils, climbing (without ten- 
drils) over shrubs and small trees. 

Virginia Creeper. (Ampelopsis quinquefolia, Michx.) — This 
pretty vine, sometimes cultivated, is found along fence-rows 
and borders of woods in all parts of the State. It may be known 
by its leaflets growing in fives from the end of a common leaf- 
stalk, as in the Buckeye, which is the case with no other of our 
Climbers. The foliage becomes crimson in the Fall. The berries 
are dark-blue, about the size of a small pea, borne on bright 
crimson foot-stalks. The rapidity of its growth renders this 
Creeper useful for covering old walls, etc., like the English Ivy. 
It is, indeed, sometimes called American Ivy. This is often con- 
founded with the Poison Vine, though having very little likeness 
to it, and is hence avoided, though it be quite innocent. 

1. Woodbine. (Lonicera sempervirens, Ait.) — This beautiful 
vine, now common in cultivation, grows from the coast to the 



34 The Vines of North Carolina 

i 

mountains. The flowers are tubular, 1 to 2 inches long, scarlet 
without and yellow within. In rich soils it has a very luxuriant 
growth, climbing high into forest trees. 

2. Yellow Woodbine. (L. grata, Ait.) — This belongs to the 
mountains, and has a flower 1 to li/2 inch long, reddish on the 
tubular part, whitish at top, then changing to yellow, somewhat 
fragrant. The young branches are often hairy. 

3. Small Woodbine. (L. parviflora, Linn.) — Found in the 
mountains, less climbing than the others, with flowers about % 
inch long, somewhat swollen at the base of the tube, and greenish- 
yellow tinged with purple. 

I have heard of a yellow species in Gates County, but have 
never seen any specimens. 

1. Common Bamboo or Green Brier. (Smilax rotundifolia, 
Linn.) — Very common in all the Districts, generally in thickets 
where the soil is rather fertile, 20 to 40 feet long, the stems and 
branches of a yellowish-green color, round, and armed with 
strong prickles, the branchlets slightly angled. The leaves are 
deciduous, 3 or 4 inches long, roundish and heart-shaped. The 
berries, as in most of the species, are bluish-black, borne in 
bunches upon a common stalk in the fork of the leaves, and which 
is about the same length with the leaf-stalk. 

2. (S. tamnoides, Linn.) — A stout prickly vine with angled 
branchlets, occurring in the Lower and Middle Districts. The 
leaves are somewhat fiddle-shaped or contracted in the middle, 
the base sometimes spreading into rounded projections. The 
general fruit-stalk is a little flattened, about 1% inch long, and 
twice the length of the leaf -stalk. 

3. China Root. (S. Pseudo-China, Linn.) — Stout and prickly 
like No. 2, 10 to 15 feet long, the branches roundish and not 
prickly, and the roots tuberous. The leaves are large, 4 to 7 
inches long, ovate, green both sides, the edges and nerves on the 
underside roughened with minute prickles. The general fruit- 
stalk is flat and 2 or 3 inches long. The berries are blackish and 
larger than in the preceding species. 

4. Sarsaparilla. (S. glauca, Walt.) — Not uncommon in all 
the Districts in cultivated grounds near streams. The stems are 
prickly and 2 to 4 feet long. The leaves are ovate, and covered, 
especially on the underside, with a white bloom that rubs off 
under the finger. The berries are black. The common fruit- 
stalk is 2 or 3 times longer than the leaf -stalk. The root of this 
is sometimes used in the composition of diet drinks. It is not the 
Sarsaparilla of the druggists, but is said to be often mixed with 
it. 



The Vines of North Carolina 35 

5. (S. Walteri, Pursh.) — Stem dark green, angled, 10 to 15 
feet long, having prickles only towards the bottom, running over 
bushes and up small trees in branch swamps of the Lower Dis- 
trict. Leaves deciduous, ovate, heart-shaped, smooth, dark shin- 
ing green above, paler beneath, terminating in a small, almost 
prickly point, 3 to 4 inches long, 2 to 3 wide, and having 3 distinct 
and 2 obscure nerves. The berries are scarlet and very con- 
spicuous in Winter. This has a creeping root. 

6. (S. lanceolata, Linn.) — This and No. 5 are the only species 
with red berries. But this has evergreen leaves, narrower than 
in the preceding and acute at base. The branches, too, are not 
angled, and the root is tuberous. I have not myself met with it, 
and give it on the authority of others. 

7. (S. laurifolia, Linn.) — This is a showy species, and like 
Nos. 6 and 8, has evergreen leaves. It runs to a great length over 
bushes and up lofty trees, the lower part only being prickly. The 
leaves are thick and shining, lance-shaped or oblong. The 
general fruit-stalk is equal to the leaf -stalk, 1/6 to 1/4 inch long. 
Berries black. This seems confined to wet places in the Lower 
District. 

8. (S. auriculata, Walt.) — Similar to No. 7, slightly or not at 
all prickly, growing over small shrubs on the coast, flowers fra- 
grant. The leaves are perennial, 1 to 2 inches long, narrowly 
ovate, 3 to 5 nerved, with conspicuous cross veins, especially 
beneath, terminated by an abrupt almost prickly point. Com- 
mon fruit-stalk rather shorter than the leaf-stem. Berries black. 

Rattan. Supple Jack. (Berchemia volubilis, DC.) — A very 
tough flexible vine running up trees. The leaves are alternate, 
1 to 2 inches long, ovate, dark green, very smooth, not toothed, 
having prominent parallel unbranched straight veins running 
obliquely from the midrib to the margin. The berry is dark 
purple, about *4 mcn long, with a thin coat and a hard smooth 
nut. Grows from Virginia southward through our Lower Dis- 
trict. 

(Sageretia Michauxii, Brogn.) — Grows upon the sandy soil of 
the coast, 6 to 18 feet long, with thorn-like spreading branches. 
Leaves 1 inch long, ovate, opposite, smooth and shining, finely 
toothed. Flowers very small, in loose clusters. The berry is 
small and round, dark purple, and pleasantly acid. I have not 
met with this, and have introduced it here on the authority of 
Michaux. 

(Cocculus Carolinus, DC.) — This runs extensively over shrubs 
and small trees on the borders of damp woods and streams, from 
the coast to Lincoln. The leaves are 2 to 4 inches long, broadly 



36 The Vines of North Carolina 

ovate and heart-shaped, sometimes 3 lobed, smooth above, with 
a soft gray down underneath. The ripe berries are red, about 
the size of a small pea, growing in small clusters, containing a 
hard flat nut which is curved nearly into a ring. 

Moon Seed. (Menispermum Canadense, Linn.) — This is 6 to 
12 feet long, and woody only in the lower part. It is the only one 
of our woody Climbers that has the leaf-stalk inserted into the 
plate of the leaf instead of the lower edge. The berries are black 
and contain a flat nut, as in the preceding species, curved into 
the form of a horse shoe. Rare in the Lower District, not un- 
common elsewhere. 

Poison Vine. (Rhus radicans, Linn.) — Now considered by 
Botanists as only a variety of Poison Oak, but necessarily sepa- 
rated in the arrangement I have adopted. It is the only trifoliate 
woody Climber we have. Like Poison Oak and Poison Sumach, 
very poisonous to some people. Common throughout the State. 

The next Group of Climbers, comprising five genera, have 
their fruit in dry pods. All of the species are ornamental. 

Trumpet Flower. (Tecoma radicans, Juss.) — This splendid 
Climber, ascending the loftiest tree, is found from the coast to 
the lower part of the mountains, preferring damp rich soils. Its 
dark green compound leaves ,and scarlet tubular flowers which 
are 2 to 3 inches long, make it an attractive ornament in yards 
and gardens. This harmless plant has the reputation, with some, 
of being poisonous. 

Cross Vine. (Bignonia capreolata, Linn.) — This, like the pre- 
ceding, is sometimes called Trumpet Flower. The flowers are of 
similar form, about 2 inches long, but are of a duller red on the 
outside and yellow within. The leaves are of a dull green, grow- 
ing in pairs from the end of a common foot-stalk, each leaflet 
also having its own stalk. This does not climb to so great a 
height as the other. A cross section of the stem exhibits a por- 
tion of its inner structure in the form of a Maltese cross, which 
gives the name to this plant. Not uncommon in the Lower and 
Middle Districts. 

Virgin's Bower. (Wistaria frutescens, DC.) — This luxuriant, 
much admired Climber is found, I think, only in damp rich soils 
of the Lower District. It stands cultivation remarkably well in 
the Middle District. The leaves are pinnate, like those of the 
Locust; and the flowers are of the size and structure of the 
Garden Pea, purplish-blue, in large pendent compact clusters 4 
to 6 inches long. We have no other woody Vine answering to 
these characters. The stem is exceedingly tough and serves well 
for withes or ligatures. 



The Vines of North Carolina 37 

Carolina Jessamine. (Gelsemium sempervirens, Ait.) — No 
plant is more common in the Lower District, but it reaches very 
little into the Middle. It extends northward into Virginia, but 
becomes much more luxuriant as we go south. Its graceful ever- 
green leaves, the profusion of its large, bright yellow and de- 
liriously fragrant blossoms, render this vine the pride of our 
forest. The odor of the flowers in a close room sometimes in- 
duces headache. Most of the plant, especially the root, taken 
internally, is narcotic and poisonous. A tincture of the root, 
judiciously administered, is useful in rheumatic affections; but 
in the hands of quacks death has been caused by it. 

(Forsteronia difformis, A. DC.) — A smooth twining plant, 6 
to 12 feet long, found chiefly in the Lower District, but extending 
into the interior as far at least as Wake County. It is sometimes 
mistaken for the Yellow Jessamine, but the flowers are tubular 
and smaller, more like those of a Woodbine, about 1-3 inch long, 
and greenish-yellow. The fruit is a slender pod, containing seeds 
that have a tuft of down. 

The next Group of three genera have their seeds in small dry 
capsules. 

Wax-work. Bittersweet. (Celastrus scandens, Linn.) — This 
is to me the rarest plant in the State, as I have seen but a single 
stock, near Lincolnton. This is its most southern known limit. 
It ascends trees to the height of 12 or 15 feet. The leaves are 
about 3 inches long, taper pointed, smooth, toothed. The berry- 
like capsule is orange-red, clustered on the ends of its short 
branches, of the size of a large pea, bursting when mature and 
disclosing 3 to 6 scarlet seeds. In this state it is quite an orna- 
mental vine. 

(Decumaria barbara, Linn.) — A pretty vine ascending trunks 
by means of rootlets insinuated into the bark, after the manner 
of the Poison Vine. The leaves are 3 to 4 inches long, broadly 
ovate, opposite, rather thick and shining, generally with scattered 
teeth towards the upper end. The flowers are small, white and 
fragrant, in showy compound clusters on the ends of the 
branches, opening in May. This is found in the Lower District 
only, and is unknown north of this State. 

Wild Ginger. Big Sarsaparilla. (Aristolochia Sipho, 
L'Her.) — Found in rich soils all along our mountain rivulets, 
climbing over bushes, and sometimes ascending trees. The 
stems are occasionally 2 inches thick. The leaves are roundish, 
heart-shaped, 8 to 12 inches broad, and slightly downy on the 
underside. The flower is coarse, brownish-purple, li/ 2 inch long, 
somewhat tubular, with top cut into three segments, below which 



38 The Vines of North Carolina 

it is contracted and curved like a Dutch pipe, from which, in 
some parts of the United States, it has gotten the name of 
Dutchman's Pipe. The root is very aromatic and stimulant, like 
Ginger, and would serve as a medicine where these properties are 
indicated. 

The two remaining genera have naked seeds, which are re- 
markable for their long feathered tails. 

Virgin's Bower. (Clematis Virginiana, Linn.) — A partly 
woody vine, 10 to 15 feet long, climbing over thickets and fences. 
It is found from the coast to the mountains, generally near 
streams, but is less common in the Lower District. The leaves 
are composed of 3 ovate leaflets which are a little cut. The 
flowers are in loose clusters, 1/2 to % inch broad, and clothing 
the upper part of the vine with a flowing mantle of white. The 
flowers are succeeded by heads of feathered seeds which are still 
more ornamental than the blossoms. 

(Atragene Americana, Sims.) — This is accredited by others to 
the mountains of North Carolina, but it has escaped my own 
observation. It is a very showy vine, both in fruit and flower, 
and, like the preceding, is woody only in its lower parts. It 
climbs over rocks and bushes by means of its leaf-stalks. The 
leaves are in pairs on opposite sides of the stem, making 4 in a 
circle, each long leaf-stalk bearing 3 leaflets. The flowers are 
bluish-purple, 2 to 3 inches broad, followed by heads of seeds 
which have long feathered tails. 



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